Section Six

Role and Activities of the R&D Manager/Leader

TOPICS INCLUDED IN THIS SECTION INCLUDE:


Modified: June 16, 2017

Adams, Scott, "The Dilbert Principle: A Cubicle's-Eye View of Bosses, Meetings, Management Fads, and Other Workplace Afflictions", New York: Harper Business, 1996

Adler, P.S. and Ferdows, Kasra, "The Chief Technology Officer", California Management Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, Spring, 1990, pp. 55-62

Aird, D.C., "Improving the Performance of Engineers", Proceedings of the 23rd Joint Engineering Management Conference, Washington, D.C., October, 1975, pp. 75-86

Andrews, F.M. and Farris, G.F., "Supervisory Practices and Innovation in Scientific Teams", Personnel Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 4, Winter, 1967, pp. 497-516

Aspray, William, "Engineers as Executives: An International Perspective", Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1994

Badawy, M.K., "Dealing With Poor Performance: Action Strategies For Engineering Managers", Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Society for Engineering Management, Dallas, TX, September 23-25, 1984, pp. 101-105

Badawy, M.K., "Applying Management by Objectives to R&D Labs", Research Management, Vol. 19, No. 6, November, 1976, pp. 35-40

Baillie, A.S., "Management of Risk and Uncertainty", Research Management, Vol. 23, No. 2, March, 1980, pp. 20-24

Baird, Bruce, "The Technical Manager: How to Manage People and Make Decisions", Belmont, CA: Lifetime Learning Publications, 1983

Baker, Merl, "Sharpening the Focus of Viewpoints Between Higher Education and Employers of the Expertise Required for Contemporary and Future Technical Managers", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 40, No. 3, August, 1993, pp. 211-223

Balkin, D.B., Markman, G.D. and Gomez-Mejia, L., "Is CEO Pay in High Technology Firms Related to Innovation?", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43, No. , 2000, pp. 1118-1129

Barnes, L.B. and Kriger, M.P., "The Hidden Side of Organizational Leadership", Sloan Management Review, Vol. 28, No. 1, Fall, 1986, pp. 15-25

Barnowe, J.T., "Leadership and Performance Outcomes in Research Organizations: The Supervisor of Scientists as a Source of Assistance", Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol. 14, No. 2, October, 1975, pp. 264-280

Barnowe, J.T., "Leadership and Scientific/Applied Outcomes in Research Organizations", Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Canadian Association of Administrative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, June, 1974, Section 5, pp. 1-8

Bartell, Marvin, "Value Congruence Between Scientists and Research Directors: The Effects on Scientist Performance", Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the Canadian Association of Administrative Sciences, Kingston, Ontario, June, 1973, Section 5, pp. 55-65

Baumgartel, H., "Leadership Style as a Variable in Research Administration", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 2, December, 1957, pp. 344-360

Baumgartel, H., "Leadership, Motivations, and Attitudes in Research Laboratories", Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1956, pp. 24-31

Becker, R.H., Martin, P.K. and Wilbur, R.D., "Management by Accountability", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 34, No. 1, January-February, 1991, pp. 41-43

Bennis, Warren and Biederman, Patricia W., "Organizing Genius: The Secrets of Creative Collaboration", Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1997

Berson, Yair and Linton, Jonathan D., "An Examination of the Relationships Between Leadership Style, Quality, and Employee Satisfaction in R&D versus Administrative Environments", R&D Management, Vol. 35, No. 1, January, 2005, pp. 51-60

Bess, James L., "Creative R&D Leadership: Insights from Japan", Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1995

Bettman, R.B., "Technical Managers Mismanaged: Turnover or Turnabout", Personnel Journal, Vol. 66, No. 4, April, 1987, pp. 64-70

Bhattacharya, R.K., Mukherji, S., Jagannathan, P. and Puranik, M.B., "Developing the Research Manager", Indian Management, Vol. 28, No. 12, December, 1989, pp. 4-8

Blaylock, B.K. and Winkofsky, E.P., "An Explanation of R&D Decision Processes Through Individual Information Processing Preferences", R&D Management, Vol. 13, No. 3, July, 1983, pp. 129-141

Bond III, Edward U., Walker, Beth A., Hutt, Michael D. and Reingen, Peter H., "Reputational Effectiveness in Cross-Functional Working Relationships", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 21, No. 1, January, 2004, pp. 44-60

Bonner, Joseph M., Ruekert, Robert W. and Walker Jr., Orville C., "Upper Management Control of New Product Development Projects and Project Performance", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 19, No. 3, May, 2002, pp. 233-245

Borredon, Liz and Ingham, Marc, "Mentoring and Organisational Learning in Research and Development", R&D Management, Vol. 35, No. 5, November, 2005, pp. 493-500

Botterman, R.C. and Schwitter, J.P., "Engineer-Manager Conflicts", Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 31, October, 1966, pp. 66-69

Bowie, R.M., "The Role and Qualifications of Top-Level Research Management", Research Management, Vol. 7, No. 4, July, 1964, pp. 279-286

Bowman, C.W., "Measuring Good Research Management", Research- Technology Management, Vol. 35, No. 2, March-April, 1992, pp. 13- 15

Bowonder, B., "The Research Manager and His Roles", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 12, No. 1, Summer, 1980, pp. 17-24

Bridenbaugh, P.R., "Credibility Between CEO and CTO - A CTO's Perspective", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 35, No. 6, November-December, 1992, pp. 27-33

Brooks, L.S. and Wells, C.S., "Role Conflict in Design Supervision", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 36, No. 4, November, 1989, pp. 271-281

Brown, W.B. and Goslin, L.N., "R&D Conflict: Manager vs. Scientist", MSU Business Topics, Vol. 13, Summer, 1965, pp. 71-79

Bucher, G.C., "How to Help the New Researcher Adjust to the Organization", Research Management, Vol. 17, No. 4, July, 1974, pp. 34-38

Bush, C.N., "Coping with their Jobs - What First-Level R&D Managers Tell IRI Management Study Groups", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 35, No. 4, July-August, 1992, pp. 10-12

Campbell, David, "Good Leaders are Credible Leaders", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 36, No. 5, September-October, 1993, pp. 29-31

Cannon, Peter, "Dangerous Crossroads, or How To Avoid Collisions with Finance", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 42, No. 1, January-February, 1999, pp. 9-11

Carpenter, Daniel J., Fusfeld, Alan R. and Gritzo, Louis A., "Leadership Skills and Styles", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 53, No. 6, November-December, 2010, pp. 58-60

Case, Randolph H. and Singer, Jean, "Re: Project Team Empowerment Aboard the Starship Enterprise", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 3, May-June, 1997, pp. 13-15

Chatterji, Deb, "A New CEO Arrives", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 38, No. 3, May-June, 1995, pp. 12-14

Chatterji, Deb, "What I Would Like to See in My CEO", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 37, No. 4, July-August, 1994, pp. 8-10

Chatterji, Deb, "Emerging Challenges for R&D Executives - An American Perspective", R&D Management, Vol. 23, No. 3, July, 1993, pp. 239-247

Churchman, C.W., Kruytbosch, C.E. and Ratoosh, P., "The Role of the Research Administrator", in Research Program Effectiveness, M.C. Yovitts et al, eds., New York: Gordon and Breach, 1966, pp. 425-440

Churchman, C.W. and Schainblatt, A.H., "The Researcher and the Manager: A Dialectic of Implementation", Management Science, Vol. 11, February, 1965, pp. B69-B87

Clarke, Thomas E., "Management and Leadership of Scientists", presentation to the 22nd Annual Conference of the Analytical Laboratory Manager's Association, League City, Texas, October 31st - November 2nd, 2001, Nanaimo, B.C.: Stargate Consultants Limited, November, 2001

Clarke, Thomas E. and Reavley, Jean, "Problems Faced by R&D Managers in Canadian Federal Government Laboratories", R&D Management, Vol. 18, No. 1, January, 1988, pp. 33-44

Coates, Joseph F., "Management From A to Z: 2057", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 50, No. 1, January-February, 2007, pp. 32-34

Cordero, Rene, Farris, George F. and DiTomaso, Nancy, "Supervisors in R&D Laboratories: Using Technical, People, and Administrative Skills Effectively", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 51, No. 1, February, 2004, pp. 19-30

Daellenbach, Urs S., McCarthy, Anne M. and Schoenecker, Timothy S., "Commitment to Innovation: the Impact of Top Management Team Characteristics", R&D Management, Vol. 29, No. 3, July, 1999, pp. 199-208

Dailey, R.C., "Project Leaders' Locus of Control and Task Certainty as Antecedents of Members' Satisfaction with Leadership and R&D Team Performance", Engineering Management International, Vol. 1, No. 1, July, 1981, pp. 41-47

Dalton, Marie and Dalton, Charles, "Engineering Teams Can Be OK", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-23, No. 3, August, 1976, pp. 110-115

Datla, Deepak K. and Guthrie, James P., "Executive Succession: Organizational Antecedents of CEO Characteristics", Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7, September, 1994, pp. 569-577

Davis, Keith, "Mutuality in Understanding of the Program Manager's Management Role", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-12, No. 4, December, 1965, pp. 117-122

Deevi, Seetharama C., "The Role of the CTO", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 54, No. 3, May-June, 2011, pp. 9-10

Demirag, Istemi S., "The Impact of Managers' Short-term Perceptions on Technology Management and R&D in UK Companies", Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 8, No. 1, March, 1996, pp. 21-32

Dewhirst, H.D., "Management-By-Objectives for Research: A Contingency Approach", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 10, No. 1, Summer, 1978, pp. 35-39

Donovan, Sandra S., "What It Takes to be a Success at Commercial Development", ChemTech, Vol. 24, No. 4, April, 1994, pp. 13-14

Doran, George T. and Gunn, Jack, "Decision Making in High-tech Firms: Perspectives of Three Executives", Business Horizons, Vol. 45, No. 6, November-December, 2002, pp. 7-16

Dowbenko, Rostyslaw, "An Intern Program for New Professionals", ChemTech, Vol. 4, No. 6, June, 1974, pp. 344-347

Dunwell, P., Pitfield, M., and Savill, H.C., "Management by Objectives in R&D", R&D Management, Vol. 2, No. 1, October, 1971, pp. 21-24

Durham, Kenneth and Kennedy, Bruce, "The New High-Tech Manager: Six Rules for Success in Changing Times", Norwood MA: Artech House, 1997

Eldredge, W.J., "How to Stimulate the Innovation Process", Chemical Engineering, Vol. 96, No. 7, July, 1989, pp. 187-188, 190, 192

Elkins, Teri J. and Keller, Robert T., "Best Practices for R&D Project Leaders: Lessons from Thirty Years of Leadership Research", International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, Vol. 1, No. 1, March, 2004, pp. 3-16

Elkins, T. and Keller, R.T., "Leadership in Research and Development Organizations: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework", The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 14, Nos. 4/5, August/October, 2003, pp. 587-606

Emery, D.A., "How Do You Rate as an R and D Manager?", Proceedings of the 10th National Conference on the Administration of Research, Pennsylvania State University Press, September, 1956, pp. 18-21

Emery, J.A., "The Relationship of the Administrator to the Researcher: Liaison vs. Liability", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 16, No. 1, Summer, 1984, pp. 37-44

Ettinger, M.B., "Standard Methods for the Mediocre Science Manager", Ann Arbor, MI: Humphrey Science Publishers, Inc., 1970

Ettorre, Barbara, "A Talk with Xerox's Top Scientist", Management Review, Vol. 84, No. 2, February, 1995, pp. 9-12

Evan, W.M., "Superior-Subordinate Conflict in Research Organizations", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 10, June, 1965, pp. 52-64

Falkingham, Leslie T. and Reeves, Richard, "Four Ways of Thinking About R&D Management", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 44, No. 4, July-August, 2001, pp. 11-14

Fanger, G.O., "The Other Side of Freaksville", ChemTech, Vol. 8, No. 7, July, 1978, pp. 393-395

Farrington, Ted, "Who Do You Want Leading Your Organization?", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 49, No. 4, July-August, 2006, pp. 58-60

Farris, George F., "Technical Leadership: Much Discussed But Little Understood", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 31, No. 2, March-April, 1988, pp. 12-16

Farris, G.F., "The Technical Supervisor: Beyond the Peter Principle", Technology Review, Vol. 75, No. 5, March/April, 1973, pp. 26-33

Farris, G.F., "The Effect of Individual Roles on Performance in Innovative Groups", R&D Management, Vol. 3, No. 1, October, 1972, pp. 23-28

Farris, George F. and Cordero, Rene, "Leading Your Scientists and Engineers 2002", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 45, No. 6, November-December, 2002, pp. 13-24

Farson, Richard and Keyes, Ralph, "The Failure-Tolerant Leader", Harvard Business Review, August, 2002, pp. 64-71

Feldman, S.P., "The Idealization of Technology: Power Relations in an Engineering Department", Human Relations, Vol. 42, No. 7, July, 1989, pp. 575-592

Ferguson, J.G., "Applying the Key Work Objectives Approach to R&D - A Case Example", Research Management, Vol. 19, No. 4, July, 1976, pp. 33-35

Fischer, W.A. and McLaughlin, C.P., "MBO and R&D Productivity: Revisiting the System's Dynamics", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-27, No. 4, November, 1980, pp. 103-108

Foust, Jeff A., "Leading Experts: One Manager's Experience", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 47, No. 2, March-April, 2004, pp. 12-19

Fraenkel, S.J., "How Not to Succeed as an R&D Manager", Research Management, Vol. 23, No. 3, May, 1980, pp. 35-37

Frank, E.R., "Motivation by Objectives - A Case Study", Research Management, Vol. 12, No. 6, November, 1969, pp. 391-400

Frantz, L.R., "Engineering Ethics: The Responsiblity of the Manager", Engineering Management International, Vol. 4, No. 4, January, 1988, pp. 267-272

Friedman, Lee, Fleishman, E.A. and Fletcher, J.M., "Cognitive and Interpersonal Abilities Related to the Primary Activities of R&D Managers", Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 9, Nos. 3/4, December, 1992, pp. 211-242

Frischer, Josef, "Empowering Management in New Product Development Units", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 10, No. 5, November, 1993, pp. 393-401

Frohman, A.L., "The Performance of Innovation: Managerial Roles", California Management Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, Spring, 1978, pp. 5-12

Frosch, Robert A., "Learning from Lao Tzu: A Leadership Primer", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 43, No. 3, May-June, 2000, pp. 27-28

Galvin, Robert W., "Real Leaders Create Industries", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 38, No. 6, November-December, 1995, pp. 8-9

Garrett, Geoff and Davies, Graham, "Herding Cats: Being Advice to Aspiring Academic and Research Leaders", Devon, UK: Triarchy Press, August, 2010

Garry, F.W., "Managing on Today's Technical Fast Track", Engineering Management International, Vol. 1, No. 2, May, 1982, pp. 93-98

Gemmill, Gary and Wilemon, David, "The Hidden Side of Leadership in Technical Team Management", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 37, No. 6, November-December, 1994, pp. 25-32

Geraci, John, "Real Managers Don't Boss", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 37, No. 6, November-December, 1994, pp. 12-13

Gibbons, C.C., "The Scientist as Administrator", Research Management, Vol. 6, No. 6, November, 1963, pp. 425-433

Giegold, W.C., "Leadership - The Essential of Engineering Management", Engineering Management International, Vol. 1, No. 1, July, 1981, pp. 49-56

Gilbert, Kevin, "Why Corporations Won't Play Ball", ChemTech, Vol. 11, No. 6, June, 1981, pp. 326-327

Gill, H.S., "Engineering Management: A Challenge in Leadership", Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 99, No. 2, February, 1977, pp. 45-47

Gilman, John J., "Risk Was His Friend: Edison's Legacy to Innovation Leaders", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 38, No. 4, July-August, 1995, pp. 8-9

Glaser, B.G., "Attraction, Autonomy, and Reciprocity in the Scientist-Supervisor Relationship", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 8, December, 1963, pp. 379-398

Glassman, E., "Managing for Creativity: Back to Basics in R&D", R&D Management, Vol. 16, No. 2, April, 1986, pp. 175-183

Gomez-Mejia, Luis R. and Lawless, Michael W., eds., "Advances in Global High-Technology Management - Vol. 1: Top Management and Executive Leadership in High Technology", Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1992

Graham, R.W., "Engineering Management and Innovation", Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 102, No. 10, October, 1980, pp. 26-28

Green, David W., "Sitting Skills", Managing the Modern Laboratory, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2001, pp. 26A & 28A

Green, David W., "The Art of Being Uncomfortable", Managing the Modern Laboratory, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2001, pp. 4A & 6A

Green, Stephen G., "Top Management Support for R&D Projects: A Strategic Leadership Perspective", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 42, No. 3, August, 1995, pp. 223-232

Greenwald, H.P., "Scientists and the Need to Manage", Industrial Relations, Vol. 17, No. 2, May, 1978, pp. 156-167

Gregory, V.L., "Managing Research to Improve Efficiency and Productivity", Research Management, Vol. 27, No. 2, March-April, 1984, pp. 26-28

Gupta, Ashok K. and Wilemon, David, "Changing Patterns in Industrial R&D Management", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 6, November, 1996, pp. 497-511

Gwynne, Peter, "The CTO as Line Manager", Research-Technology Manager, Vol. 39, No. 2, March-April, 1996, pp. 14-18

Haggblom, Ted, Calantone, Roger J. and di Benedetto, C. Anthony, "Do New Product Development Managers in Large or High-Market-Share Firms Perceive Marketing-R&D Interface Principles Differently?", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 12, No. 4, September, 1995, pp. 323-333

Harris, Grady W., "Keeping the Boss Informed - Three Ways", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 37, No. 4, July-August, 1994, pp. 11-13

Harris, Richard C. and Lambert, Jean T., "Building Effective R&D Teams: The Senior Manager's Role", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 41, No. 5, September-October, 1998, pp. 28-35

Hastings, R.E., "Leadership in University Research Teams", Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University, 1963

Heilmeier, George H., "Enabling Innovation The "No Excuses" Way", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 43, No. 3, May-June, 2000, p. 26

Heilmeier, George H., "Room for Whom at the Top? Promoting Technical Literacy in the Executive Suite", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 36, No. 6, November-December, 1993, pp. 27-32

Heininger, S.A., "R&D and Competitiveness - What Leaders Must Do", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 31, No. 6, November- December, 1988, pp. 6-7

Hersey, Paul and Blanchard, K.H., "Managing Research and Development Personnel: An Application of Leadership Theory", Research Management, Vol. 12, No. 5, September, 1969, pp. 331-338

Hill, I.D., "The Real Barriers to Innovation", Research Management, Vol. 27, No. 2, March-April, 1984, p. 6

Hill, Raymond E., "Occupational Interests and Career Differentiation Among R&D Personnel", Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 10, No. 3, September, 1993, pp. 265-283

Hill, R.E. and Collins-Eaglin, J.A., "Technical Professionals, Technical Managers, and the Integration of Vocational Consciousness", Human Resource Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1985, pp. 177-186

Hill, Raymond E. and McCullough, Tammy, "Helping New Leaders Succeed", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 41, No. 5, September-October, 1998, pp. 14-18

Hill, R.E., Tinkham, M.T. and Roselle, P.F., "The Occupational Interests of R&D Managers and Technical Specialists: Some Preliminary Findings", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-31, No. 1, February, 1984, pp. 12-17

Hill, S.C., "A Natural Experiment on the Influence of Leadership Behavior Patterns on Scientific Productivity", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-17, No. 1, February, 1970, pp. 10-20

Hillier, James, "Effective Leaders Solve Problems", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 43, No. 3, May-June, 2000, pp. 34-35

Hillier, James, "The R&D Manager Wears Five Hats", Research Management, Vol. 15, No. 4, July, 1972, pp. 33-41

Hillier, James, "The Responsibilities of the First Line of Supervision in Research", Research Management, Vol. 1, No. 4, Winter, 1958, pp. 225-234

Hirschhorn, Larry, "Manage Polarities Before They Manage You", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 44, No. 5, September-October, 2001, pp. 12-16

Hitchcock, L.B., "Problems of First Line Supervisors", Research Management, Vol. 10, No. 6, November, 1967, pp. 385-397

House, R.J., Filley, A.C. and Kerr, Steven, "Relation of Leader Consideration and Initiating Structure to R&D Subordinates Satisfaction", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 1, March, 1971, pp. 19-30

Hout, Thomas M., "Time-based Competition Is Not Enough", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 39, No. 4, July-August, 1996, pp. 15-17

Howell, J.M. and Higgins, C.A., "Champions of Technological Innovation", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 2, June, 1990, pp. 317-341

Hoyt, J. and Gerloff, E.A., "Organizational Environment, Changing Economic Conditions, and the Effective Supervision of Technical Personnel: a Management Challenge", The Journal of High Technology Management Research, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2000, pp. 275-293

Huang, Eugenia Y. and Lin, Shu-Chiung, "How R&D Management Practice Affects Innovation Performance: An Investigation of the High-tech Industry in Taiwan", Industrial Management Data Systems, Vol. 106, 2006, pp. 966-996

IRI and EIRMA Member Company Representatives, "'Biggest Problems' Facing Technology Leaders", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 45, No. 6, November-December, 2002, p. 12

IRI Member Company/Counterpart Representatives, "'Biggest Problems' Facing Technology Leaders", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 44, No. 5, September-October, 2001, pp. 16-17

IRI Member Company/Counterpart Representatives, "'Biggest Problems' Facing Technology Leaders", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 43, No. 5, September-October, 2000, pp. 14-15

IRI Member Company Representatives, "Ten 'Biggest' Problems Technology Leaders Face", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 42, No. 6, November-December, 1999, pp. 13-14

IRI Member Company Representatives, "The `Biggest' Problems Technology Leaders Face", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 41, No. 5, September-October, 1998, pp. 18-19

IRI Member Company Representatives, "The `Biggest' Problems Technology Leaders Face", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 5, September-October, 1997, pp. 14-15

IRI Member Company Representatives, "The `Biggest' Problems Technology Leaders Face", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 39, No. 6, November-December, 1996, p. 12

IRI Member Company Representatives, "`Biggest' Problems Technology Leaders Face", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 38, No. 5, September-October, 1995, p. 13

Iya, Sandhya and Akhilesh, K.B., "Technology as Perceived by R&D Team Leaders: An Analysis", R&D Management, Vol. 22, No. 3, July, 1992, pp. 265-276

Jacques, Elliott and Clement, Stephen, "Executive Leadership: A Practical Guide to Managing Complexity", Arlington, VA: Cason Hall & Co. Publishers, 1991

James, Geoffrey, "The Secret to Corporate Growth", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 2, March-April, 1997, pp. 8-9

Javidan, Mansour, "Leading a High-commitment High-performance Organization", Long Range Planning, Vol. 24, No. 2, April, 1991, pp. 28-36

Joshi, Ashok, "Leadership Lessons", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 53, No. 4, July-August, 2010, pp. 9-14

Kantrow, Alan M., "Leaders of Technological Innovation Face Continually Shifting Ground", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 43, No. 3, May-June, 2000, pp. 25-26

Kaplan, N., "The Role of the Research Administrator", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 4, June, 1959, pp. 20-42

Katz, R. and Tushman, M.L., "A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Boundary Spanning Supervision on Turnover and Promotion in Research and Development", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 26, No. 3, September, 1983, pp. 437-456

Katz, Ralph, Tushman, Michael and Allen, Thomas J., "The Influence of Supervisory Promotion and Network Location on Subordinate Careers in a Dual Ladder RD&E Setting", Management Science, Vol. 41, No. 5, May, 1995, pp. 848-863

Keating, Jr., P.J., "The Research Director and His People", Research Management, Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring, 1961, pp. 23-30

Keil, Mark, Lee, Hyung Koo and Deng, Tianjie, "Understanding the Most Critical Skills for Managing IT Projects: A Delphi Study of IT Project Managers", Information & Management, Vol. 50, No. 7, November, 2013, pp. 398-414

Keller, Robert T., "`Transformational' Leaders Make a Difference", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 38, No. 3, May-June, 1995, pp. 41-44

Keller, R.T., "Transformational Leadership and the Performance of Research and Development Project Groups", Journal of Management, Vol. 18, No. 3, September, 1992, pp. 489-501

Keller, R.T., "A Test of the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership with Need for Clarity as a Moderator in Research and Development Organizations", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 74, 1989, pp. 208-212

Kim, Youngbae, Min, Byungwook and Cha, Jongseok, "The Roles of R&D Team Leaders in Korea: a Contingent Approach", R&D Management, Vol. 29, No. 2, April, 1999, pp. 153-165

Kleber, T.P., "The Six Hardest Areas to Manage by Objectives", Personnel Journal, Vol. 51, No. 8, August, 1972, pp. 571-575

Knowles, H.P. and Saxberg, B.O., "Organizational Leadership of Planned and Unplanned Change: A Systems Approach to Organizational Viability", Futures, Vol. 20, No. 3, June, 1988, pp. 252-265

Kruytbosch, C.E., "Management Styles and Social Structure in `Identical' Engineering Groups", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-19, No. 3, August, 1972, pp. 92-102

Kuhn, R.L., ed., "Handbook for Creative and Innovative Managers", New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987

Kwak, M., "Technical Skills, People Skills, It's Not Either/Or", Sloan Management Review, Spring, 2001, p. 16

La Porte, T.R., "Conditions of Strain and Accommodation in Industrial Research Organizations", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 10, June, 1965, pp. 21-38

Larson, Charles F., "Critical Success Factors for R&D Leaders", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 39, No. 6, November-December, 1996, pp. 19-21

Liao, Li-Fen, "Impact of Manager's Social Power on R&D Employees' Knowledge-sharing Behaviour", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 41, Nos. 1/2, 2008, pp. 169-182

Likert, R., "Supervision", in The R&D Game, D. Allison, ed., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1969, pp. 169-181

Linden, L.H., "The Business of Technology", Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 4, Summer, 1992, pp. 60-68

MacAvoy, Thomas C., "Choosing an Alliance Manager", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 5, September-October, 1997, pp. 12-14

Maccoby, Michael, "Organizational Leadership and Natural Selection", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2012, pp. 58-60

Maccoby, Michael, "Learn Change Leadership from Two Great Teachers", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 53, No. 2, March-April, 2010, pp. 68-69

Maccoby, Michael, "NASA Researchers Learn Leadership as a Way of Being", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 51, No. 6, November-December, 2008, pp.66-67

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