Section Three

Rewarding R&D Personnel and Inventors

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS SECTION INCLUDE:


Modified: June 15, 2017

Abbott, Langer & Associates, "Compensation in Research & Development, 13th Edition", Crete, IL: Abbott, Langer & Associates, 1999, [708/672-4200, $750.00]

Abdel-Hamid, Tarek K., Sengupta, Kishore and Hardebeck, Michael J., "The Effect of Reward Structures on Allocating Shared Staff Resources Among Interdependent Software Projects: An Experimental Investigation", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 41, No. 2, May, 1994, pp. 115-125

Allen Thomas J. and Katz, Ralph, "The Project-oriented Engineer: A Dilemma for Human Resource Management", R&D Management, Vol. 25, No. 2, April, 1995, pp. 129-140

Allen, T.J. and Katz, Ralph, "Age, Education and the Technical Ladder", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 39, No. 3, August, 1992, pp. 237-243

Allen, T.J. and Katz, R., "The Treble Ladder Revisited: Why Do Engineers Lose Interest in the Dual Ladder as they Grow Older", International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 12, Nos. 5/6, 1991, pp. 478-488

Allen, T.J. and Katz, R., "The Dual Ladder: Motivational Solution or Managerial Delusion?", R&D Management, Vol. 16, No. 2, April, 1986, pp. 185-197

Aryee, Samuel, "Career Orientations, Perceptions of Rewarded Activity, and Career Strategies Among R&D Professionals", Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 9, No. 1, March, 1992, pp. 61-82

Atchison, Thomas and French, Wendell, "Pay Systems for Scientists and Engineers", Industrial Relations, Vol. 7, No. 1, October, 1967, pp. 44-56

Badawy, M.K., "Managing Human Resources", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 31, No. 5, September-October, 1988, pp. 19-35; revised Vol. 50, No. 4, July-August, 2007, pp. 56-74

Bailyn, Lotte, "The Hybrid Career: An Exploratory Study of Career Routes in R&D", Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 8, No. 1, June, 1991, pp. 1-14

Balderston, Jack, "Do You Really Want to Be a Manager", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 9, No. 4, Spring, 1978, pp. 36-42

Balderston, J.A., "A Performance and Salary Review System for Scientists", Research Management, Vol. 7, No. 3, May, 1964, pp. 209-224

Balkin, D.B. and Gomez-Mejia, L.R., "Compensation Practices in High Technology Industries", Personnel Administrator, Vol. 30, No. 6, June, 1985, pp. 111-113, 115-116, 118, 122-123

Balkin, D.B. and Gomez-Mejia, L.R., "Determinants of R&D Compensation Strategies in the High Tech Industry", Personnel Psychology, Vol. 37, No. 4, Winter, 1984, pp. 635-650

Balkin, D.B. and Logan, J.W., "Reward Policies that Support Entrepreneurship", Compensation and Benefits Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, January/February, 1988, pp. 18-25

Baroudi, J.J., "The Career Needs of IS Personnel: Does the Dual Career Ladder Work?, Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science, Vol. 4, 1988, pp. 171-180

Beebe, T.H., "Company Practices in Rewarding Outstanding Research Achievements", Research Management, Vol. 8, No. 5, September, 1965, pp. 311-330

Bikard, Michael and Murray, Fiona, "Exploring Trade-offs in the Organization of Scientific Work: Collaboration and Scientific Reward", Management Science, Vol. 61, No. 7, July, 2015, pp. 1473-1495

Bralley, J.A., "Job Status as an Award for Scientific and Administrative Accomplishment", Research Management, Vol. 3, No. 4, Winter, 1960, pp. 227-238

Brewer, J.M., "Careers - Dual Ladder Approach: Meeting the Needs of the Individual and the Organization", Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 76, No. 2, February, 1980, p. 9

Bristol, R.O., "A Look at Employee Fringe Benefits as a Means of Partial Compensation", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-28, No. 2, May, 1981, pp. 26-30

Cantrall, E.W., Manly, D.G., Schroeter, D.G. and Wakeham, H.R., "The Dual Ladder - Successes and Failures", Research Management, Vol. 20, No. 4, July, 1977, pp. 30-33

Caudron, Shari, "Motivating Creative Employees Calls for New Strategies", Personnel Journal, Vol. , No. , May, 1994, pp. 103-106

Chalopsky, A.B., "Incentive Practices as Viewed by Scientists and Managers of Pharmaceutical Laboratories", Personnel Psychology, Vol. 17, Winter, 1964, pp. 385-401

Chamillard, George, "Go West Again?", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 46, No. 6, November-December, 2003, pp. 11-13

Chen, Chao C., DiTomaso, Nancy and Farris, George F., "Attitudes Toward Organizational Change: Effects of Self-Interest, Competitive Values, and Ethnicity", IEEE Transaction on Engineering Management, Vol. 46, No. 4, November, 1999, pp. 399-406

Chen, Chao C., Ford, Cameron M. and Farris, George F., "Do Rewards Benefit the Organization? The Effects of Reward Types and the Perceptions of Diverse R&D Professionals", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 46, No. 1, February, 1999, pp. 47-55

Chester, Arthur N., "Measurements and Incentives for Central Research", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 14, No. 4, July-August, 1995, pp. 14-22

Clarke, Thomas E., "Practices Employed by Science-based Organizations to Determine the Salary Compensation and Promotion, and Career Paths of Research Scientists: A Literature Review", Nanaimo, B.C.: Stargate Consultants Limited, February, 2003

Clarke, Thomas E., "Focus and Expected Impact of Rewards, Recognition and Incentives for Research Engineers and Scientists", Ottawa, Ontario: Stargate Consultants Limited, December, 1996

Clarke, Thomas E., "Review of Award Plans for Inventors and Innovators", Ottawa, Ontario: Stargate Consultants Limited, December, 1995

Clinch, Greg, "Employee Compensation and Firms' Research and Development Activity", Journal of Accounting Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring, 1991, pp. 59-78

Cole, S. and Cole, J.R., "Scientific Output and Recognition: A Study in the Operation of the Reward System in Science", American Sociological Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1967, pp. 377-399

Collins, R.A. and Yeager, J.L., "Staff Evaluation and Incentive Practices Utilized by Behavioral Science Research Organizations: A Pilot Study", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 5, No. 3, Winter, 1974, pp. 29-45

Connor, P.E. and Scott, W.G., "Reward Protocols in Technical Organizations: Interpersonal versus Technical Competence", Human Organization, Vol. 33, 1974, pp. 367-374

Coolley, R.B., "Deciding on Ownership of Inventions", Les Nouvelles, Vol. 20, No. 4, December, 1985, pp. 165-168

Cordero, Rene and Farris, G.F., "Administrative Activity and the Managerial Development of Technical Professionals", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 39, No. 3, August, 1992, pp. 270-276

Despres, Charles, "Compensation for Technical Professionals", Research-Technology Managemet, Vol. 39, No. 5, September-October, 1996, pp. 48-56

Diaz, M.D.S. and Gomez-Mejia, L.R., "The Effectiveness of Organization-wide Compensation Strategies in Technology Intensive Firms", Journal of High Technology Management Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1997, pp. 301-315

Edwards, M.R., "Measuring Creativity at Work: Developing a Reward-for-Creativity Policy", The Journal of Creative Behavior, Vol. 23, No. 1, First Quarter, 1989, pp. 26-37

Ellis, L.W. and Honig-Haftel, Sandra, "Reward Strategies for R&D", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 35, No. 2, March- April, 1992, pp. 16-20

Emmons, W.D., "The Dual Ladder - The Pioneering Research Approach", Research Management, Vol. 20, No. 4, July, 1977, pp. 27- 29

Faust, R.E., "Guidelines for Recognizing and Rewarding Individual Performance in Research and Development", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 14, No. 3, Winter, 1983, pp. 35- 38

Feldman, Laurence P., "The Role of Salary and Incentives in the New Product Function", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 3, May, 1996, pp. 216-228

Frederick, D.A., "Motivating Scientists and Engineers", Industrial Research, Vol. 9, March, 1967, pp. 86-91

Galbraith, C.S. and Merrill, G.B., "The Effect of Compensation Program and Structure on SBU Competitive Strategy: A Study of Technology-Intensive Firms", Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 12, No. 5, July, 1991, pp. 353-370

Garcia, J.R. and Stevens, W.L., "Technical Career Programs in Large Research and Development Laboratories", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-15, No. 3, September, 1968, pp. 126-138

Glaser, B.G., "Variations in the Importance of Recognition for Careers", in Organizational Scientists: Their Professional Careers, San Francisco, CA: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1964, (Ch. 4), pp. 41-63

Glaser, B.G., "The Impact of Differential Promotion Systems on Careers", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM- 10, No. 1, March, 1963, pp. 21-24

Glass, E.M., "Institutional Analysis of Compensation for Scientists and Engineers", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-13, No. 1, March, 1966, pp. 41-62

Goddar, Heinz, "Employee Ownership of Inventions", Les Nouvelles, Vol. 31, No. 2, June, 1996, pp. 82-86

Goldberg, A.I. and Shenhav, Y.A., "R&D Career Paths: Their Relation to Work Goals and Productivity", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-31, No. 3, August, 1984, pp. 111-117

Gomez-Mejia, L.R., Balkin, D.B. and Milkovitch, G.T., "Rethinking Rewards for Technical Employees", Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 18, No. 4, Spring, 1990, pp. 62-75

Gunz, H.P., "Dual Ladders in Research: A Paradoxical Organizational Fix", R&D Management, Vol. 10, No. 3, June, 1980, pp. 113- 118

Gussin, R.Z., "Sustaining the Vitality of Research", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 12, No. 3, Winter, 1981, pp. 17-24

Hallenberg, E.X., "The Dual Advancement Ladder Provides Unique Recognition for the Scientist", Research Management, Vol. 13, No. 3, May, 1970, pp. 221-227

Hansen, W.L., "Professional Engineers: Salary Structure Problems", Industrial Relations, Vol. 2, May, 1963, pp. 33-44

Healey, F.H., "Job Status for the Research Scientist", Research Management, Vol. 3, No. 4, Winter, 1960, pp. 239-244

Hereim, A.T., "Are Scientists Becoming Administrators?", American Scientist, Vol. 50, December, 1962, pp. 358A-360A

Herzog, D.R., "A Study of Salary Surveys of Quality-Assurance Positions in Industry Compared to Government", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-19, No. 2, May, 1972, pp. 61- 68

Hirschleifer, Jack, "The Private and Social Value of Information and the Reward to Inventive Activity", The American Economic Review, Vol. 61, No. 4, September, 1971, pp. 561-574

Husband, T.M., "Equitable Payment in the R&D Function", R&D Management, Vol.6, No. 2, February, 1976, pp. 51-58

Industrial Research Institute Study Group, "Motivation, Incentives, and Rewards for R&D Personnel", Research Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, May, 1969, pp. 169-171

Ivancevich, J.M., "Contrast Effects in Performance Evaluation and Reward Practices", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 26, No. 3, September, 1983, pp. 465-476

Jauch, L.R., "Tailoring Incentives for Researchers", Research Management, Vol. 19, No. 6, November, 1976, pp. 23-27

Jones, R.R., "Real Salary Gains for R&D Workers", Industrial Research/Development, Vol. 21, No. 3, March, 1979, pp. 77-82

Kanama, Daisuke and Nishikawa, Kohei, "Does an Extrinsic Reward for R&D Employees Enhance Innovation Outcomes? Evidence from a Japanese Innovation Survey", R&D Management, Vol. 47, No. 2, March, 2017, pp. 198-211

Katz, Ralph, Tushman, Michael and Allen, Thomas J., "The Influence of Supervisory Promotion and Network Location on Subordinate Careers in a Dual Ladder RD&E Setting", Management Science, Vol. 41, No. 5, May, 1995, pp. 848-863

Katz, R., Tushman, M.L. and Allen, T.J., "Managing the Dual- Ladder: A Longitudinal Study", Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1991

Kim, Bowon and Oh, Heungshik, "Economic Compensation Compositions Preferred by R&D Personnel of Different R&D Types and Intrinsic Values", R&D Management, Vol. 32, No. 1, January, 2002, pp. 47-59

Kochanski, James and Ledford, Gerald, "'How to Keep Me' - Retaining Technical Professionals", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 44, No. 3, May-June, 2001, pp. 31-38

Kochanski, James, Mastropolo, Paul and Ledford, Gerry, "People Solutions for R&D", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 46, No. 1, January-February, 2003, pp. 59-61

Koning Jr., J.W., "Three Other R'S: Recognition, Reward and Resentment", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 36, No. 4, July-August, 1993, pp. 19-29

Kopelman, R.E., "Merit Rewards, Motivation and Job Performance", Research Management, Vol. 20, No. 3, May, 1977, pp. 35-37

Kornhauser, William, "Professional Incentives in Industry", in Scientists in Industry, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1962, (Ch. 5), pp. 117-157

Kouzes, James M. and Posner, Barry Z., "Encouraging the Heart: A Leader's Guide to Rewarding and Recognizing Others", San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999

Kunkel, J. Gregory, "Rewarding Product Development Success", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 5, September-October, 1997, pp. 29-31

Leamer, F.D., "Salary Administration of Scientific and Engineering Personnel at Bell Telephone Laboratories", Research Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, March, 1964, pp. 91-106

Leamer, F.D., "Professional and Administrative Ladders: The Advantages of Broad Job Classifications in a Research Organization", Research Management, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring, 1959, pp. 53- 62

Lee, Mushin and Shin, Wonjun, "An Empirical Analysis of the Role of Reference Point in Justice Perception in R&D Settings in Korea", Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 17, No. 2, June, 2000, pp. 175-191

Lentz, C.W., "Dual Ladders Become Multiple Ladders at Dow Corning", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 33, No. 3, May-June, 1990, pp. 28-34

Leptien, Christopher, "Incentives for Employed Inventors: An Empirical Analysis with Special Emphasis on the German Law for Employee's Inventions", R&D Management, Vol. 25, No. 2, April, 1995, pp. 213-225

Littler, D.A. and Pearson, A.W., "Rewarding the Employee Inventor and the Patents Act (1977)", R&D Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, October, 1979, pp. 29-32

Lynn, L.H., Piehler, H.R. and Kieler, M., "Engineering Careers, Job Rotation, and Gatekeepers in Japan and United States", Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 10, 1993, pp. 53-72

Manly, D.G., "Inventors, Innovators, Compensation and the Law", Research Management, Vol. 21, No. 2, March, 1978, pp. 29-32

Marcy, Willard, "New Approaches for Compensation of Inventors", Research Management, Vol. 21, No. 2, March, 1978, pp. 25-28

Marcy, Willard, "Rewarding Inventors in Academia", Research Management, Vol. 15, No. 1, January, 1972, pp. 71-74

Martell, Kathryn D. and Carroll, Jr., Stephen J., "The Role of HRM in Supporting Innovation Strategies: Recommendations on How R&D Managers Should be Treated from an HRM Perspective", R&D Management, Vol. 25, No. 1, January, 1995, pp. 91-104

McKinnon, P.D., "Steady-State People: A Third Career Orientation", Research Management, Vol. 30, No. 1, January-February, 1987, pp. 26-32

McMarlin, R.D., "Parallel Progression - Careers for Non-Supervisory Engineers and Scientists", Personnel Administration, Vol. 20, No. 2, March-April, 1957, pp. 38-42

McMillan, John, "Royalty Programs That Encourage Innovation", Journal of Compensation and Benefits, Vol. 8, 1993, pp. 17-22

Medcof, John W. and Rumpel, Steven, "High Technology Workers and Total Rewards", The Journal of High Technology Management Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2007, pp. 59-72

Meisel, S.L., "The Dual Ladder - The Rungs and Promotion Criteria", Research Management, Vol. 20, No. 4, July, 1977, pp. 24-26

Meltzer, B.H. and Watkins, P.H., "Careers - Dual Ladder Approach: A Successful Career Advancement Program", Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 76, No. 3, March, 1980, pp. 24-25

Miller, D.B., "Careers - Dual Ladder Approach: Personal Responsibility for Career Success: Making the Most of the System", Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 76, No. 4, April, 1980, pp. 25-27

Modis, Theodore, "Competition and Forecasts for Nobel Prize Awards", Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 34, No. 2, September, 1988, pp. 95-102

Moore, D.C. and Davies, D.S., "The Dual Ladder - Establishing and Operating It", Research Management, Vol. 20, No. 4, July, 1977, pp. 14-19

Moran, P.F., "Equitable Salary Administration in High-Tech Companies", Compensation and Benefits Review, Vol. 18, No. 5, September-October, 1986, pp. 31-40

Moravec, Milan, "How BPX Implemented Dual-Career Ladders", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 36, No. 1, January-February, 1993, pp. 39-44

Moser, M.R. and Morrissey, Bonnie, "Achievement Recognition in a Research and Development Unit", Engineering Management International, Vol. 3, No. 1, November, 1984, pp. 49-54

Mower, J.C. and Wilemon, David, "Rewarding Technical Teamwork", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 32, No. 5, September-October, 1989, pp. 24-29

Muhlemeyer, Peter, "R&D-personnel Management by Incentive Management: Results of Empirical Survey in Research & Development", Personnel Review, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1992, pp. 27-36

Nelson, Bob, "1001 Ways to Reward Employees", New York: Workman Publishing, 1994

Orpen, Christopher, "Individual Needs, Organizational Rewards, and Job Satisfaction Among Professional Engineers", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-32, No. 4, November, 1985, pp. 177-180

Pascarella, Perry, "Compensating Teams", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 4, July-August, 1997, p. 58

Perry, Phillip M., "Holding Your Top Talent", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 44, No. 3, May-June, 2001, pp. 26-30

Platt, R.K., "The Big Picture at Big Blue: Total Rewards at IBM", Workspan, Vol. 43, No. 8, 2000, pp. 26-28

Raudsepp, Eugene, "Rewarding Outstanding Achievements", Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol. 48, No. 8, August, 1969, pp. 147-151

Rees, Albert, "The Salaries of Ph.D.'s in Academe and Elsewhere", The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 7, No. 1, Winter, 1993, pp. 151-158

Reskin, B.F., "Scientific Productivity and the Reward Structure of Science", American Sociological Review, Vol. 42, No. 3, June, 1977, pp. 491-504

Ritti, R.R., "Dual Management - Does it Work", Research Management, Vol. 14, No. 6, November, 1971, pp. 19-26

Ross, T.A., Robinson, R.F. and Ingersoll, A.C., "Compensation of Engineers", (three articles), Chemical Engineering Progress, November, 1969, pp. 31-42

Royer, G.L., "Salary Administration of Research Personnel", Research Management, Vol. 1, No. 2, Summer, 1958, pp. 113-128

Rumpel, Steven and Medcof, John W., "Total Rewards: Good Fit for Tech Workers", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 49, No. 5, September-October, 2006, pp. 27-35

Sacco, Jr., G.J. and Knopka, W.N., "Restructuring the Dual Ladder at Goodyear", Research Management, Vol. 26, No. 4, July-August, 1983, pp. 36-41

Sankar, C.S., Ledbetter, W.N., Snyder, C.A., Roberts, T.L., McCreary, J. and Boyles, W.R., "Perceptions of Reward Systems by Technologists and Managers in Information Technology Companies", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 38, No. 4, November, 1991, pp. 349-358

Sarin, Shikhar and Mahajan, Vijay, "The Effect of Reward Structures on the Performance of Cross-functional Product Development Teams", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 65, No. 2, April, 2001, pp. 35-53

Schein, E.H., McKelvey, W.W., Peters, D.R. and Thomas, J.M., "Career Orientations and Perceptions of Rewarded Activity in a Research Organization", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 4, March, 1965, pp. 333-349

Schoner, B. and Harrell, T.W., "The Questionable Dual Ladder", Personnel, Vol. 42, No. 1, January-February, 1965, pp. 53-57

Schumacher, J.C., "Salary Administration of Scientific and Engineering Personnel in an Atmosphere of Increasing Competition", Research Management, Vol. 6, No. 5, September, 1963, pp. 355-366

Schuster, J.R., "Management Compensation in High Technology Companies: Assuring Corporate Excellence", Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1984

Shepard, H.A., "The Dual Hierarchy in Research", Research Management, Vol. 1, No. 3, Autumn, 1958, pp. 177-187

Shepherd, Clovis and Brown, Paula, "Status, Prestige, and Esteem in a Research Organization", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 1, December, 1956, pp. 340-360

Sherwood, W.B., "Strokes for the Little Folks", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 35, No. 5, September-October, 1992, p. 12

Sirilli, Giorgio, "Patents and Inventors: An Empirical Study", Research Policy, Vol. 16, Nos. 2-4, August, 1987, pp. 157-174

Sirilli, Giorgio, "The Researcher in Italy: A Profession in Search of Recognition", Research Policy, Vol. 15, No. 6, December, 1986, pp. 329-337

Smith, J.J. and Szabo, T.T., "The Dual Ladder - Importance of Flexibility, Job Content and Individual Temperament", Research Management, Vol. 20, No. 4, July, 1977, pp. 20-23

Souder, W.E., "Award Programs for R&D Personnel", Research Management, Vol. 28, No. 6, November-December, 1985, pp. 13-18

Spear, R.E. and Souder, W.E., "Defining the Technical Ladder", Research Management, Vol. 29, No. 5, September-October, 1986, pp. 25-28

Staudt, Erich, Bock, Jurgen, Muhlemeyer, Peter, and Kriegesmann, Bernd, "Incentive Systems as an Instrument of Company Innovation Management", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 6, Nos. 3/4, 1991, pp. 395-413

Steckelberg, W.R., "Compensating Employed Inventors in Europe", Research Management, Vol. 22, No. 4, July, 1979, pp. 28-31

Thanasse, L., "Living by the Johnson and Johnson Credo: ETHICON Thrives in a Total Rewards Environment", World at Work Journal, Second Quarter, 2003, pp. 8-15

Torrence, G.W., "Maturity Curves and Salary Administration", Management Record, Vol. 24, January, 1962, pp. 14-17

Tunwall, C.A. and Mount, M.K., "Sales Compensation in High-Tech Firms: The Motivational Issues", Compensation and Benefits Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, January-February, 1989, pp. 43-47

Turner, W.J., "How IBM Rewards Employees", ChemTech, Vol. 12, No. 4, April, 1982, pp. 202-204

Turner, W.J., "How the IBM Awards Program Works", Research Management, Vol. 22, No. 4, July, 1979, pp. 24-27

Valle-Riestra, J.F., "Careers - Dual Ladder Approach: The Dual Ladder System, a Critique from the Technical Side", Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 76, No. 2, February, 1980, pp. 12-15

Vanderbilt, B.M., "The Plight of the Independent Inventor", IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. PC-22, No. 2, June, 1979, pp. 63-67

Van Fleet, Richard, "Salary Administration for Scientific and Engineering People", Research Management, Vol. 10, No. 6, November, 1967, pp. 371-383

Wagner, Erika B., "Why Prizes? The Surprising Resurgence of Prizes to Stimulate Innovation", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 54, No. 6, November-December, 2011, pp. 32-36

Whitaker, Ken, "Managing Software Maniacs: Finding, Managing, and Rewarding a Winning Development Team", New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994

Wilson, G.J., "Scientific and Administrative Position Titles and Level Descriptions", Research Management, Vol. 4, No. 3, Autumn, 1961, pp. 181-210

Wolff, M.F., "Revisiting the Dual Ladder at General Mills", Research Management, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-June, 1987, pp. 8-12

Wolff, M.F., "Misusing the Dual Ladder or `The Case of Joe Mertz'", Research Management, Vol. 28, No. 2, March-April, 1985, pp. 7-9

Wolff, M.F., "Revamping the Dual Ladder at General Mills", Research Management, Vol. 22, No. 6, November, 1979, pp. 8-11

Wright, B.D., "The Economics of Invention Incentives: Patents, Prizes, and Research Contracts", The American Economic Review, Vol. 73, No. 4, September, 1983, pp. 691-707

Zenger, Todd R., "Explaining Organizational Diseconomies of Scale in R&D: Agency Problems and the Allocation of Engineering Talent, Ideas, and Effort by Firm Size", Management Science, Vol. 40, No. 6, June, 1994, pp. 708-729

Zenger, T.R., "Why Do Employees Only Reward Extreme Performance? Examining the Relationships Among Performance, Pay, and Turnover", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 2, June, 1992, pp. 198-219



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