Section Two

Motivation and Effective Management
of R&D Personnel



TOPICS COVERED IN THIS SECTION INCLUDE:

 

Modified: September 16, 2012

Abbey, A. and Dickson, J., "R&D Work Climate and Innovation in Semiconductors", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 26, No. 2, June, 1983, pp. 362-368

Abend, C.J., "The Corporate Black Hole", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 2, No. 2, June, 1985, pp. 88-92

Abetti, P.A., "Fostering a Climate for Creativity and Innovation in Business-Oriented R&D Organizations: A Historical Project", Creativity & Innovation Network, Vol. 12, No. 1, January-March, 1986, pp. 4-16

Abrahamson, Mark, "The Integration of Industrial Scientists", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 9, September, 1964, pp. 208-218

Acton, Gwen and Andrews, Tim", Impeding Scientist's Productivity", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 49, No. 5, September-October, 2006, pp. 59-60

Adams, J.R., "Behavioral Impacts on Estimating Accuracy in Research and Development Management: An Exploratory Study", Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Seattle, WA, August, 1974, p. 67

Adams, Scott, "The Dilbert Principle: A Cubicle's-Eye View of Bosses, Meetings, Management Fads, and Other Workplace Afflictions", New York: Harper Business, 1996

Addison, Arnold, "Maintaining the Research and Development Personnel in a Small Laboratory", IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-4, No. 2, June, 1957, pp. 46-49

Adler Jr., Philip and Jackson, T.W., "Motivating Research Technicians", Research Management, Vol. 11, No. 3, May, 1968, pp. 183- 191

Adler, P.S., McDonald, D.W. and MacDonald, Fred, "Strategic Management of Technical Functions", Sloan Management Review, Vol. 33, No. 2, Winter, 1992, pp. 19-37

Albright, L.E. and Glennon, J.R., "Personal History Correlates of Physical Scientists' Career Aspirations", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 45, No. 5, October, 1961, pp. 281-284

Allen, T.J., "Distinguishing Engineers from Scientists", in Managing Professionals in Innovative Organizations, R. Katz, ed., Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1988, pp.3-18

Allen, T.J. and Marquis, D.G., "Positive and Negative Biasing Sets: The Effects of Prior Experience on Research Performance", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-11, No. 4, December, 1964, pp. 158-161

Allen, T.J. and Varghese, George, "Changes in the Field of R&D Management Over the Past 20 Years", R&D Management, Vol. 19, No. 2, April, 1989, pp. 103-113

Amabile, Teresa M., "Creativity in Context: Update to the Social Psychology of Creativity", Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996

Amabile, Teresa M., "A Model of Creativity and Innovation in Organizations", Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 10, 1988, pp. 123-167

Amabile, Teresa M. and Conti, Regina, "What Downsizing Does to Creativity", Issues & Observations, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1995, pp. 1-6

Amabile, Teresa M., Hadley, Constance, N. and Kramer, Steven J., "Creativity Under the Gun", Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80, No. 8, August, 2002, pp. 52-61

Amabile, Teresa M., Conti, Regina, Coon, Heather, Lazenby, Jeffrey and Herron, Michael, "Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39, No. 5, October, 1996, pp. 1154-1184

Amick, D.J., "The Scientist's Mission and Professional Involvement: A Quantitative Revisitation to the Sociology of Science", Social Science Research, Vol. 2, No. 3, September, 1973, pp. 293- 306

Amoroso, Frank, "The Roles of Expanded Awareness and Inner Awareness in Technological Creativity", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-30, No. 1, February, 1983, pp. 25-26

Ancona, D.G. and Caldwell, David, "Improving the Performance on New Product Teams", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 33, No. 2, March-April, 1990, pp. 25-29

Anderson, Maria W., Grimwade, Alexander and Tamkins, Theresa, "Best Places to Work in Industry, 2005", The Scientist, Vol. 19, No. 11, June 6, 2005, pp. 43-

Andrews, F.M., "Creative Ability, the Laboratory Environment and Scientific Performance", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-14, No. 2, June, 1967, pp. 76-83

Andrews, F.M., "Factors Affecting the Manifestation of Creative Ability by Scientists", Journal of Personality, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1965, pp. 140-152

Andrews, F.M., "Scientific Performance as Related to Time Spent on Technical Work, Teaching or Administration", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 9, September, 1964, pp. 182-193

Andrews, F.M. and Farris, G.F., "Time Pressure and Performance of Scientists and Engineers: A Five Year Panel Study", Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, Vol. 8, No. 2, October, 1972, pp. 185-200

Armstrong, John, "It's Possible To Spend Too Much on RD&E", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 5, September-October, 1997, pp. 10-11

Argyris, Chris, "On the Effectiveness of Research and Development Organizations", American Scientist, Vol. 56, No. 4, 1968, pp. 344-355

Argyris, Chris, "Interpersonal Competence, Organizational Milieu, and Innovation", Research Management, Vol. 9, No. 2, March, 1966, pp. 71-99

Archer, E.D., Dorawal, T.G. and Huffmire, D.W., "How Texaco R&D Improved Its Organization", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 36, No. 2, March-April, 1993, pp. 45-51

Atkinson, M.H.E., "Factors Discriminating Between Technological Spin-Offs and Research and Development Personnel", M.A. Thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., August, 1972

Audet, Michel, Blais, R.A. and Miller, Roger, "Human Resource Management in Technology Based Firms", Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Management of Technology, Miami, Fl, February 17-21, 1992, Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press, Vol. 2, pp. 973-983

Augsdorfer, Peter, "Managing the Unmanageable", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 51, No. 4, July-August, 2008, pp. 41-47

Augsdorfer, P., "Forbidden Fruit: An Analysis of Bootlegging, Uncertainty and Learning in Corporate R&D", Avebury, Aldershot, 1996

Avery, R.W., "Enculteration in Industrial Research", IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-7, No. 1, March, 1960, pp. 20-24

Baba, Marietta L., Falkenburg, Donald R. and Hill, David H., "Technology Management and American Culture: Implications for Business Process Reddesign", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 39, No. 6, November-December, 1996, pp. 44-54

Babcock, J.A., "The Care and Feeding of Professionals", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 8, No. 3, Winter, 1977, pp. 9-14

Backus, John, "In Research, Failure is the Partner of Success", Research Management, Vol. 27, No. 4, July-August, 1984, pp. 26-29

Badawy, M.K., "Managing Human Resources", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 31, No. 5, September-October, 1988, pp. 19-35; revised Vol. 50, No. 4, July-August, 2007, pp. 56-74

Badawy, M.K., "Management as a New Technology", New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993

Badawy, M.K., "Practical Issues in Managing Technical Professionals", International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 13, Nos. 5/6, 1992, pp. 428-442

Badawy, M.K., "Technology and Productivity: Strategic Human Resource Management Issues", in Managing Technology in a Competitive International Environment, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Engineering Management, Toronto, ONT., September, 10-13, 1989, pp. 160-168

Badawy, M.K., "How to Prevent Creativity Mismanagement", Research Management, Vol. 29, No. 4, July-August, 1986, pp. 28-35

Badawy, M.K., "Dealing With Poor Performance: Action Strategies For Engineering Managers", Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Society for Engineering Management, Dallas, TX, September 23-25, 1984, pp. 101-105

Badawy, M.K., "Management Strategies For Combating Job Stress: Implications For Engineering Managers", Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Society for Engineering Management, Washington, DC, October 16-18, 1983, pp. 57-60

Badawy, M.K., "One More Time: How to Motivate Your Engineers", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-25, No. 2, May, 1978, pp. 37-42

Badawy, M.K., "Towards Better Management of Research Organizations", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 8, No. 2, Fall, 1976, pp. 9-15

Badawy, M.K., "Organizational Designs for Scientists and Engineers: Some Research Findings and their Implications for Management", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-22, No. 4, November, 1975, pp. 134-138

Badawy, M.K., "Motivating Engineers: A Little Psychology Goes a Long Way", Machine Design, Vol. 47, No. 25, October 16, 1975, pp. 120-122

Badawy, M.K., "What's Wrong with R&D Management", Industry Week, Vol. 181, No. 11, June 10, 1974, pp. 41-43

Badawy, M.K., "Bureaucracy in Research: A Study of Role Conflict of Scientists", Human Organization, Vol. 32, No. 2, Summer, 1973, pp. 126-127

Badawy, M.K., "Industrial Scientists and Engineers: Motivational Style Differences", California Management Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Fall, 1971, pp. 11-16

Badawy, M.K., "Understanding the Role Orientations of Scientists and Engineers", Personnel Journal, Vol. 50, No. 6, June, 1971, pp. 449-456

Badawy, M.K., "An Exploratory Analysis of Role Perceptions of Scientists and Engineers in Industry", Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1969

Bailey, R.L., "Disciplined Creativity for Engineers", Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., 1978

Bailyn, Lotte, "Autonomy in the Industrial R&D Lab", Human Resource Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, Summer, 1985, pp. 129-146

Baird, Lloyd and Frohman, Alan, "Managing People is More Critical Than Ever", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 31, No. 2, March-April, 1988, pp. 50-52

Balderston, Jack, "Creativity Categories as a Factor in R&D Staffing", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM- 12, No. 2, June, 1965, pp. 63-64

Bamane, B.D., "Impact of Technological Change", Technovation, Vol. 14, No. 1, February, 1994, pp. 3-5

Baran, Stanley, Zandan, Peter and Vanston, J.H., "How Effectively Are We Managing Innovation?", Research Management, Vol. 29, No. 1, January-February, 1986, pp. 23-25

Barley, Stephen R., "Technicians in the Workplace: Ethnographic Evidence for Bringing Work into Organization Studies", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 3, September, 1996, pp. 404-441

Barndt, S.E., Larsen, J.C. and Ruppert, P.J., "Organizational Climate Changes in the Project Life Cycle", Research Management, Vol. 20, No. 5, September, 1977, pp. 33-36

Bart, Christopher K., "The Impact of Mission on Firm Innovativeness", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 11, Nos. 3/4, 1996, pp. 479-493

Barth, R.T., "Value Noncomplementarity and Organizational Commitment of Engineers", R&D Management, Vol. 4, No. 1, October, 1973, pp. 13-24

Barth, R.T., "The Configuration and Quality of Intergroup Climates as Perceived by Engineers and Scientists", Studies in Personnel Psychology, Vol. 3, No. 2, October, 1971, pp. 69-81

Barth, R.T., "Intergroup Climate Characteristics, Perceived Communication Problems, and Unity of Effort Achieved by Task- Interdependent R&D Groups", Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Atlanta, GA, August, 1971, pp. 250-254

Batsel, M.C., "Situations That Affect the Productivity of Engineers", IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-4, No. 1, March, 1957, pp. 17-19

Baugh, S. Gayle and Roberts, Ralph M., "Professional and Organizational Commitment Among Engineers: Conflicting or Complementary?", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 41, No. 2, May, 1994, pp. 108-114

Beal, George H., "Exploratory Research Remains Essential for Industry", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 45, No. 6, November-December, 2002, pp. 26-30

Beardsley, David, "This Company Doesn't Brake for (Sacred) Cows", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 41, No. 6, November-December, 1998, pp. 15-16

Bender, A.D., "Creativity and Productivity Programs - How Widely Are They Used", Research Management, Vol. 18, No. 5, September, 1975, pp. 35-36

Berkowitz, Leonard, "'Wish Program' for Major Innovations", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 39, No. 3, May-June, 1996, pp. 11-13

Berson, Yair and Linton, Jonathan D., "An Examination of the Relationships Between Leadership Style, Quality, and Employee Satisfaction in R&D versus Administrative Environments", R&D Management, Vol. 35, No. 1, January, 2005, pp. 51-60

Bessant, John, Burnell, Jane, Harding, Rebecca and Webb, Stephen, "Continuous Improvement in British Manufacturing", Technovation, Vol. 13, No. 4, May, 1993, pp. 241-254

Best, R.D., "The Scientific Mind vs the Management Mind", Industrial Research, Vol. 5, October, 1963, pp. 50-52

Bharadwaj, Sundar and Menon, Anil, "Making Innovation Happen in Organizations: Individual Creativity Mechanisms, Organizational Creativity Mechanisms or Both?", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 17, No. 6, November, 2000, pp. 424-434

Biery, J.C., "Can Technologists Be Actualized?", ChemTech, Vol. 8, No. 1, January, 1978, pp. 9-11

Blakeslee, G.S., "Holding on to Your High-Talent Professionals", Research Management, Vol. 27, No. 2, March-April, 1984, pp. 17-20

Bland, C.J. and Ruffin, M.T., "Characteristics of a Productive Research Environment: Literature Review", Academic Medicine, Vol. 67, 1992, pp. 385-397

Blau, BenAmi, "How IBM Technical Professionals Perceive Their Work Environment", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 32, No. 1, January-February, 1989, pp. 27-30

Blume, S.S., "Behavioural Aspects of Research Management - A Review", Research Policy, Vol. 3, No. 1, April, 1974, pp. 40-76

Bodensteiner, W.D., Gerloff, E.A. and Quick, J.C., "Uncertainty and Stress in an R&D Project Environment", R&D Management, Vol. 19, No. 4, October, 1989, pp. 309-323

Bommer, Michael and Jalajas, David, "The Innovation Work Environment of High-tech SMEs in the USA and Canada", R&D Management, Vol. 32, No. 5, November, 2002, pp. 379-386

Bommer, Michael and Jalajas, David S., "The Threat of Organizational Downsizing on the Innovative Propensity of R&D Professionals", R&D Management, Vol. 29, No. 1, January, 1999, pp. 27-34

Bond, Peter and Otterson, Paul, "Creativity Enhancement Software: a Systemic Approach", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 15, Nos. , 1998, pp. 173-

Bouty, Isabelle, "Interpersonal Influences on Informal Resource Exchanges Between R&D Researchers Across Organizational Boundaries", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43, No. 1, February, 2000, pp. 50-65

Bowen, David M., "Work Group Research: Past Strategies and Future Opportunities", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 42, No. 1, February, 1995, pp. 30-38

Bralley, J.A., "The Environment for Creativity: Proceedings of IRI Study Group Meetings", Research Management, Part I - Vol. 3, No. 2, Summer, 1960, pp. 97-122; Part II - Vol. 3, No. 3, Autumn, 1960, pp. 175-195

Braver, Neal A.C., "Overcoming Resistance to TQM", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 38, No. 5, September-October, 1995, pp. 40-44

Brennan, A. and Dooley, L., "Networked Creativity: A Structured Management Framework for Stimulating Innovation", Technovation, Vol. 25, No. 12, December, 2005, pp. 1388-1399

Breton, E.J., "Cultivating and Inducing Inventions", Research Management, Vol. 18, No. 3, May, 1975, pp. 19-23

Breton, E.J. and Gold, R.J., "Cultivating Invention", Research Management, Vol. 30, No. 5, September-October, 1987, pp. 9-12

Bright, W.M., "Are Innovators Born or Made?", Research Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, May, 1969, pp. 173-180

Broadwell, M.M., "The Relationship Between the Engineers Productivity Satisfaction and Ability, or PE = f(DS) + A", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-12, No. 4, December, 1965, pp. 150-153

Brockhoff, Klaus, "A Utopian View of R&D Functions", R&D Management, Vol. 33, No. 1, January, 2003, pp. 31-36

Brodsky, Philip H., "How Companies Kill Fundamental Research - A 'TOOtorial'", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 41, No. 5, September-October, 1998, pp. 10-13

Brown, Chris and Markham, Stephen, "Innovation Learning at BP", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 50, No. 3, May-June, 2007, pp. 9-14

Bucher, G.C., "How to Help the New Researcher Adjust to the Organization", Research Management, Vol. 17, No. 4, July, 1974, pp. 34-38

Bucher, G.C. and Gray, R.C., "The Principles of Motivation and How to Apply Them", Research Management, Vol. 14, No. 3, May, 1971, pp. 12-23

Bucher, G.C. and Reece, J.E., "What Motivates Researchers in Times of Economic Uncertainty", Research Management, Vol. 15, No. 1, January, 1972, pp. 19-32

Buchsbaum, S.J., "Managing Creativity - For Fun and For Profit", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, 1986, pp. 51-64

Buckler, Sheldon and Zien, Karen A., "The Spirituality of Innovation: Learning from Stories", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 5, September, 1996, pp. 391-405

Buel, W.D., "Biographical Data and the Identification of Creative Research Personnel", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 49, No. 5, October, 1965, pp. 318-321

Burnet, Don, "Inner Management - Swamp Style", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 11, No. 3, Winter, 1980, pp. 47-53

Bush, G.P. and Hattery, L.H., "Teamwork and Creativity in Research", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 1, December, 1956, pp. 361-372

Campbell, Simon F., "Individuals, Teams and Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 43, No. 6, November-December, 2000, pp. 27-28

Canner, Niko and Mass, Nathaniel J., "Turn R&D Upside Down", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 48, No. 2, March-April, 2005, pp. 17-21

Case, Randolph H. and Singer, Jean, "Re: Project Team Empowerment Aboard the Starship Enterprise", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 3, May-June, 1997, pp. 13-15

Chalopsky, A.B., "Incentive Practices as Viewed by Scientists and Managers of Pharmaceutical Laboratories", Personnel Psychology, Vol. 17, Winter, 1964, pp. 385-401

Chan, M., "Intergroup Conflict and Conflict Management in the R&D Divisions of Four Aerospace Companies", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 36, No. 2, May, 1989, pp. 95-104

Chen, Chao C., DiTomaso, Nancy and Farris, George F., "Attitudes Toward Organizational Change: Effects of Self-Interest, Competitive Values, and Ethnicity", IEEE Transaction on Engineering Management, Vol. 46, No. 4, November, 1999, pp. 399-406

Chen, Chao C, Ford, Cameron M. and Farris, George F., "Do Rewards Benefit the Organization? The Effects of Reward Types and the Perceptions of Diverse R&D Professionals", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 46, No. 1, February, 1999, pp. 47-55

Cheng, Sen-Hao, Wang, Yau-De, Horng, Ruey-Yun and Huang, Yung-Chang, "Person-project Fit and R&D Performance: A Case Study of Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan", R&D Management, Vol. 37, No. 3, June, 2007, pp. 209-220

Chiesa, Vittorio, "Human Resource Management Issues in Global R&D Organisations: A Case Study", Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 13, No. 2, June, 1996, pp. 189-202

Clarke, Thomas E., "Why Do We Still Not Apply What We Know About Managing R&D Personnel?", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 45, No. 2, March-April, 2002, pp. 9-11

Clarke, Thomas E., "Management and Leadership of Scientists", presentation to the 22nd Annual Conference of the Analytical Laboratory Manager's Association, League City, Texas, October 31st - November 2nd, 2001, Nanaimo, B.C.: Stargate Consultants Limited, November, 2001

Clarke, Thomas E., "Danger - Management Fad Ahead!", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 40, No. 1, January-February, 1997, p. 8

Clarke, Thomas E., "Organizational Climate, Productivity and Creativity", Ottawa, ONT: Stargate Consultants Ltd., November, 1996

Clarke, Thomas E., "Unique Features of an R&D Work Environment and Managing Research Scientists and Engineers", Ottawa, ONT: Stargate Consultants Limited, November, 1996

Clarke, Thomas E., "Research Scientists: Prima Donnas or Dedicated Professionals", Canadian Research & Development, Vol. 4, July/August, 1971, pp. 38 and 21

Clauser, H.R., "Temptation and Sin in Research", Research Management, Vol. 25, No. 2, March, 1982, p. 44

Coates, Joseph F., "Knowledge Management is a Person-To-Person Enterprise", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 44, No. 3, May-June, 2001, pp. 9-13

Cohen, E.D. and Knospe, R.H., "Professional Excellence Committee Benefits Technical Professionals at Du Pont", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 33, No. 4, July-August, 1990, pp. 46-50

Cohen, Laurie, Duberley, Joanne and McAuley, John, "The Purpose and Process of Science: Contrasting Understandings in UK Research Establishments", R&D Management, Vol. 29, No. 3, July, 1999, pp. 233-245

Cole, S. and Cole, J.R., "Scientific Output and Recognition: A Study in the Operation of the Reward System in Science", American Sociological Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, June, 1967, pp. 377-390

Compton, W.D., "Leading R&D Toward Greater Productivity", Research Management, Vol. 25, No. 1, January, 1982, pp. 17-21

Connor, P.E., "Professionals in Organizations: Some Research Suggestions", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-31, No. 1, February, 1984, pp. 7-11

Connor, P.E., "Scientific Research Competence as a Function of Creative Ability", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-21, No. 1, February, 1974, pp. 2-8

Cook, C.F., "The Troubled Life of the Young Ph.D. in an Industrial Research Lab", Research Management, Vol. 18, No. 3, May, 1975, pp. 28-31

Cooper, Paul, "A Study of Innovator's Experience of New Product Innovation in Organisations", R&D Management, Vol. 35, No. 5, November, 2005, pp. 525-533

Cooper, R.B., Dormuth, K.W., Garg, I.D., Sherman, G.R., Truss, K.J. and Willborn, Walter, "Applying Quality Assurance to R&D Projects", Quality Progress, Vol. 23, No. 7, July, 1990, pp. 21- 26

Cordero, R., DiTomaso, Nancy, and Farris, George, F., "Gender and Race/Ethnic Composition of Technical Work Groups: Relationship to Creative Productivity and Morale", Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 13, Nos. 3/4, September/December, 1996, pp. 205-222

Cotterman, R.L., "How Recent Graduates View their Jobs", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 34, No. 3, May-June, 1991, pp. 35-39

Cox, H.L., "The Personal Approach in Dealing With Technical People", Research Management, Vol. 6, No. 2, March, 1963, pp. 153-161

Coyne, William E., "How 3M Innovates for Long-Term Growth", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 44, No. 2, March-April, 2001, pp. 21-24

Crane, D., "Social Structure in a Group of Scientists: A Test of the `Invisible College' Hypothesis", American Sociological Review, Vol. 34, No. 3, June, 1969, pp. 335-352

Cullen, T., "Stimulating Creativity", Electronic Engineering Times, July 20, 1981

Curry, Ian, "Building `Keyhole' People to Increase Organizational Flexibility", Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Management of Technology, Miami, FL, February 17-21, 1992, Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press, Vol. 1, pp. 458-467

Cutler, Gale, "Innovation Mentoring at Whirlpool", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 46, No. 6, November-December, 2003, pp. 57-58

Cutler, Leonard S., "Creativity: Essential to Technological Innovation", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 43, No. 6, November-December, 2000, pp. 29-30

Dailey, R. and Morgan, C., "R&D Team Problem Solving", Management International Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1979, pp. 77-84

Danielson, L.E., "Characteristics of Engineers and Scientists", Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1961

Darter, Steven, "Save That Job: Transforming the Poor Performer", Research Management, Vol. 28, No. 3, May-June, 1985, pp. 23-26

Dasgupta, Subrata, "Technology and Creativity", New York: Oxford University Press, 1996

David Jr., E.E., "The Responsibilities of Corporate Scientists and Engineers", Technology In Society, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1986, pp. 263-266

Davidson, Jeffrey M. and Pruden, Ann Lorette, "Quality Deployment in R&D Organizations", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 39, No. 1, January-February, 1996, pp. 49-55

Debackere, Koenraad and Rappa, Michael A., "Institutional Variations in Problem Choice and Persistence Among Scientists in an Emerging Field", Research Policy, Vol. 23, No. 4, June, 1994, pp. 425-441

Demers, Fred, "Holding on to Your Best People", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 44, No. 1, January-February, 2001, pp. 13-16

Dennard, Robert H., "Creativity in the 2000s and Beyond", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 43, No. 6, November-December, 2000, pp. 23-25

Dessauer, J.H., "How a Large Corporation Motivates Its Research and Development People", Research Management, Vol. 14, No. 3, May, 1971, pp. 51-55

Dewett, Todd, "Linking Intrinsic Motivation, Risk Taking, and Employee Creativity in an R&D Environment", R&D Management, Vol. 37, No. 3, June, 2007, pp. 197-208

Dewhirst, H.D., "How Work Environment Affects Job Involvement", Research Management, Vol. 16, No. 4, July, 1973, pp. 33-37

Dewhirst, H.D. and Avery, R.D., "Range of Interests vs Job Performance and Satisfaction", Research Management, Vol. 19, No. 4, July, 1976, pp. 18-23

Dewhirst, H.D. and Holland, W.E., "Effect of Organizational Change on Career Goals of Scientists and Engineers", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-22, No. 3, August, 1975, pp. 114-119

Dhawan, S.K., "Perceptions of Indian Scientists on Work Climate, Value System and Organisational Energy", R&D Management, Vol. 21, No. 2, April, 1991, pp. 153-160

Dhawan, Sunil K., Roy, Santanu and Kumar, Suresh, "Organizational Energy: an Empirical Study in Indian R&D Laboratories", R&D Management, Vol. 32, No. 5, November, 2002, pp. 397-408

Diehl, Peter and Howell, J.R., "Engineering Teams: What Makes Them Go?", Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 96, No. 5, May, 1974, pp. 25-29

Diliddo, B.A., James, P.C. and Dietrick, H.J., "Managing R&D Creativity -- B.F. Goodrich's Approach", Management Review, Vol. 70, No. 7, July, 1981, pp. 37-41

Dinsmore, R.P., "Improving the Professional Environment of Research People: Human Relations Are Important", Research Management, Vol. 1, No. 2, Summer, 1958, pp. 101-112

DiTomaso, Nancy, Farris, George F. and Cordero, Rene, "Diversity in the Technical Work Force: Rethinking the Management of Scientists and Engineers", Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 10, Nos. 1/2, June, 1993, pp. 101-127

Dodgson, Mark, "What Role for Management in Science?", Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 11, No. 2, June, 1999, pp. 133-141

Doering, R.D., "Enlarging Scientific Task Team Creativity", Personnel, Vol. 49, No. 2, March-April, 1972, pp. 43-52

Donovan, S.S., "Flowing Past Organizational Walls", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 36, No. 4, July-August, 1993, pp. 30-31

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