Section Thirty Four

Government Policies and Programs in Support
of Technological Innovation

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS SECTION INCLUDE:



Modified: January 9, 2017


Abelson, Philip H., "Impacts on U.S. Technology in a Changing World", Technology in Society, Vol. 19, Nos. 3/4, August/November, 1997, pp. 595-607

Abernathy, W.J. and Chakravarthy, B.S., "Government Intervention and Innovation in Industry: A Policy Framework", Sloan Management Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, Spring, 1979, pp. 3-18

Abetti, Pier A., "Government-Supported Incubators in the Helsinki Region, Finland: Infrastructure, Results and Best Practices", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 29, No. 1, January, 2004, pp. 19-40

Abetti, P.A., "Planning and Building the Infrastructure for Technological Entrepreneurship", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-3, 1992, pp. 129-139

Abetti, P.A. and Kapij, M.I., "Comparing the Introduction of Business Incubators as Technology Transfer Mechanisms in Ukraine versus the United States", Management of Technology, Vol. 6, 1997, pp. 1172-1181

Abetti, P.A. and Wheeler, P.A., "Planning and Building the Infrastructure for Technological Entrepreneurship: Field Studies in the U.S.A., France and Mexico", in Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wellesley, MA: Babson College, 1990, pp. 422-436

Abraham, John, "Interests, Presupositions and the Science Policy Construction Debate", Social Studies of Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, February, 1994, p. 123-132

Abrahamson, S.R., "Assistance for Small Business", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-27, No. 4, November, 1980, pp. 94-97

Acha, Virginia and Balazs, Katalin, "Transitions in Thinking: Changing the Mindsets of Policy Makers about Innovation", Technovation, Vol. 19, Nos. 6/7, June/July, 1999, pp. 345-353

Acland-Hood, Mary, "Military and Civil R&D Expenditure", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 13, No. 1, February, 1986, pp. 52-57

Acs, Zoltan J., "Public Policies to Support New Technology-based Firms (NTBFs)", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 26, No. 4, August, 1999, pp. 247-257

Adler, R.G., "Biotechnology Development and Transfer: Recommendations for an Integrated Policy", Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1985, pp. 469-499

Aerts, Kris and Schmidt, Tobias, " Two for the Price of One?: Additionality Effects of R&D Subsidies: A Comparison Between Flanders and Germany", Research Policy, Vol. 37, No. 5, June, 2008, pp. 806-822

Ahmad, Aqueil, "Western Science and Technology in Non-Western Cultures", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 13, No. 2, April, 1986, pp. 101-105

Ahmad, Aqueil, "Politics of Science Policy Making in India", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 12, No. 5, October, 1985, pp. 234-240

Ahmad, Aqueil and Russell, H.C., eds., "Science & Technology Policy for National Development: A Window on the Asian Experience", Don Mills, ONT: Foundation for International Training, Fall, 1988

Akashah, S.E., "Innovation versus the Transfer of Technology: A Case Study of R&D in a Petroleum-Producing Country", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1987, pp. 249-262

Alestalo, Marja, "Changing Governance and Research in Finland", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 12, No. 5, October, 1985, pp. 279-285

Alic, John A., "A Weakness in Diffusion: U.S. Technology and Science Policy After World War II", Technology in Society, Vol. 30, No. 1, January, 2008, pp. 17-29

Alic, John A., "Postindustrial Technology Policy", Research Policy, Vol. 30, No. 6, June, 2001, pp. 873-889

Alic, John A., "Technology in the Service Industries", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1994, pp. 1-14

Alic, J.A., "Japanese R&D and U.S. Technology Policy", Research- Technology Management, Vol. 31, No. 5, September-October, 1988, pp. 6-7

Alic, J.A., "Evaluating Industrial Competitiveness at the Office of Technology Assessment", Technology In Society, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1987, pp. 1-17

Alic, J.A., "The Federal Role in Commercial Technology Development", Technovation, Vol. 4, No. 4, August, 1986, pp. 253-267

Allen, Geoffrey, "The Myth of Fortress Europe", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 34, No. 5, September-October, 1991, pp. 8-10

Allen, T.J., Utterback, J.M., Sirbu, M.A., Ashford, N.A. and Hollomon, J.H., "Government Influence on the Process of Innovation in Europe and Japan", Research Policy, Vol. 7, No. 2, April, 1978, pp. 124-149

Allesch, Jurgen, "Innovation and Regional Development Strategies for the Economic Development of East Germany", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 8, Nos. 6-8, 1993, pp. 544-553

Alston, J.M. and Pardey, P.G., "Market Distortions and Technological Progress in Agriculture", Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 43, Nos. 3/4, May/June, 1993, pp. 301-319

Al-Sultan, Yousuf, Burney, Nadeem A. and Al-Mussallam, Nadia, "KFAS Mechanism of Funding Research and Development: An Assessment", R&D Management, Vol. 30, No. 2, April, 2000, pp. 183-190

Amanatidou, Effie, "Foreign Policy and International R&D Collaboration Policy in Greece", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 29, No. 6, December, 2002, pp. 439-450

Amendola, Mario and Gaffard, Jean-Luc, "The Innovative Choice: An Economic Analysis of the Dynamics of Technology", Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988

American Chemical Society, "Shaping the Future", Colloquium Steering Committee, ChemTech, Vol. 24, No. 8, August, 1994, pp. 7-13

Americo, Albala and Rubenstein, Albert H., "Significant Issues for the Future of Product Innovation: The Coming Revolution in Latin America", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 11, No. 2, March, 1994, pp. 156-161

Amir, Shmuel, "Environmental Research in Israel: On the Need for a Novel Organizational Change", Research Policy, Vol. 16, No. 1, February, 1987, pp. 17-27

Ancker-Johnson, Betsy, "Current Policies and Options for the Future", Research Management, Vol. 20, No. 1, January, 1977, pp. 7-12

Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth and Jæger, Birgit, "Scenario Workshops and Concensus Conferences: Towards More Democratic Decision-making", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 26, No. 5, October, 1999, pp. 331-340

Anderson, Frances, "Where is Research Located in Canada? A Statistical Approach", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 25, No. 6, December, 1998, pp. 396-406

Andersson, Thomas, "Managing a Systems Approach to Technology and Innovation Policy", STI Review, No. 22, 1998, pp. 9-29

Ang, James and Teo, Thompson S.H., "Singapore: Staying Competitive with Advanced Manufacturing Technologies", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 24, No. 5, October, 1997, pp. 327-335

Anuskiewcz, Todd, "SBIR First Decade - Results, Benefits, Problems from a Michigan Perspective", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 17, No. 1, Winter, 1992, pp. 8-17

Archibald, Robert B. and Finifter, David H., "Evaluating the NASA Small Business Innovation Research Program: Preliminary Evidence of a Trade-off Between Commercialization and Basic Research", Research Policy, Vol. , April, 2003, pp. 605-619

Archibugi, Daniele and Pianta, Mario, "Specialization and Size of Technological Activities in Industrial Countries: The Analysis of Patent Data", Research Policy, Vol. 21, No. 1, February, 1992, pp. 79-93

Archibugi, Daniele, Howells, Jeremy and Michie, Johathan, eds., "Innovation Policy in a Global Economy", Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1999

Argyres, N.S. and Liebeskind, J.P., "Governance Inseparability and the Evolution of US Biotechnology", Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 47, No. 2, February, 2002, pp. 197-219

Arimoto, Tateo, "The History of Science and Technology Policy in the United States", The Journal of Science Policy and Research Management, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1988, pp. 106-115

Arnold, Erik, "Some Lessons from Government Information Technology Policies", Technovation, Vol. 5, No. 4, February, 1987, pp. 247-268

Arnold, Erik and Thuriaux, Ben, "Contribution of Basic Research to the Irish National Innovation System", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 28, No. 2, April, 2001, pp. 86-98

Arocena, Rodrigo and Sutz, Judith, "Changing Knowledge Production and Latin American Universities", Research Policy, Vol. 30, No. 8, October, 2001, pp. 1221-1234

Asheim, Bjørn T., Isaksen, Arne, Nauwelaers, Claire and Tödtling, Franz, "Regional Innovation Policy for Small-Medium Enterprises", Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2003

Ashford, N.A., Heaton Jr., G.R. and Hollomon, J.H., "Government Involvement in the Innovation Process: Policy Implications", Final Report CPA-78-4, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, #052-003-00576-0, May 31, 1978

Atkinson, R.C., "Ten Lessons for Successful U.S. Federal Technology Policy-making: Learning from the States", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 20, No. 1, February, 1993, pp. 3-10

Atkinson, R.C., "State of the National Research System: Issues for the New Administration", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 21, No. 1, Summer, 1989, pp. 5-12

Atkinson, R.C., "Innovation Policy Making in a Federalist System: Lessons from the States for U.S. Federal Innovation Policy Making", Research Policy, Vol. 20, No. 6, December, 1991, pp. 559- 577

Atzeni, Gianfranco E. and Carboni, Oliviero, "The Effects of Grant Policy on Technology Investment in Italy", Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-June, 2008, pp. 381-399

Auerswald, Philip E. and Branscomb, Lewis M., "Valleys of Death and Darwinian Seas: Financing the Invention to Innovation Transisition in the United States", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 28, Nos. 3/4, August, 2003, pp. 227-239

Augustine, Norman R., "R&D: Key to the 21st Century", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 52, No. 6, November-December, 2009, pp. 26-32

Averch, H.A., "Criteria and Rules for Evaluating Competing R&D Megaprojects", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 20, No. 2, April, 1993, pp. 105-113

Averch, H.A., "The Political Economy of R&D Taxonomies", Research Policy, Vol. 20, No. 3, June, 1991, pp. 179-194

Averch, H.A., "A Strategic Analysis of Science and Technology Policy", Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 1985

Ayres, R.U., "Technological Protection and Piracy: Some Implications for Policy", Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 30, No. 1, August, 1986, pp. 5-18

Ayres, R.U., "The Next Industrial Revolution: Reviving Industry Through Innovation", Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1984

Baark, Erik, "The Making of Science and Technology Policy in China", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 21, Nos. 1-2, 2001, pp.

Baark, Erik, "The Arduous Transition: Key Issues of Science and Technology Policy in Mongolia", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 21, No. 5, October, 1994, pp. 335-343

Baark, Erik, "The Value of Technology: A Survey of the Chinese Theoretical Debate and Its Policy Implications", Research Policy, Vol. 17, No. 5, October, 1988, pp. 269-282

Baark, Erik, "High Technology Innovation at the Chinese Academy of Sciences", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 15, No. 2, April, 1988, pp. 81-90

Bach, Laurent, Matt, Mireille and Wolff, Sandrine, "How Do Firms Perceive Policy Rationales Behind the Variety of Instruments Supporting Collaborative R&D? Lessons from the European Framework Programs", Technovation, Vol. 34, Nos. 5-6, May-June, 2014, pp. 327-337

Bagur, J.D. and Guissinger, A.S., "U.S. Technology Transfer Incentives", les Nouvelles, Vol. 23, No. 2, June, 1988, pp. 90-92

Bagur, J.D. and Guissinger, A.S., "Technology Transfer Legislation: An Overview", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 12, No. 1, Fall, 1987, pp. 51-63

Bagwell, Kyle and Staiger, R.W., "The Sensitivity of Strategic and Corrective R&D Policy in Battles for Monopoly", International Economic Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, November, 1992, pp. 795-816

Baker, A., "Where's the Money Coming From? - How NRDC Can Assist Industry to Develop New Technology", R&D Management, Vol. 4, No. 1, October, 1973, pp. 59-60

Bakouros, Yiannis L., Mardas, Dimitri C. and Varsakelis, Nikos C., "Science Park, a High Tech Fantasy?: An Analysis of the Science Parks of Greece", Technovation, Vol. 22, No. 2, February, 2002, pp. 123-128

Balazs, Katalyn, "Transition Crisis in the Hungarian R&D Sector", Economic Systems, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1994, pp. 281-306

Balazs, K., "Lessons from an Economy with Limited Market Functions: R&D in Hungary in the 1980s", Research Policy, Vol. 22, Nos. 5/6, November, 1993, pp. 537-552

Balazs, Katalin, "Transition of the Science and Technology Management System in Hungary", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 19, No. 2, April, 1992, pp. 89-97

Balderrama, Rafael, "Agricultural Research Priorities and Farm Modernization in Venezuela", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 15, No. 3, June, 1988, pp. 163-169

Ballart, Xavier and Subirats, Joan, "Science and Technology Policy for a Medium-sized Industrial Country: the Case of Spain", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, 1997, pp. 197-205

Ballesteros, Juan Acosta and Rico, Aurelia Modrego, "Public Financing of Cooperative R&D Projects in Spain: the Concerted Projects under the National R&D Plan", Research Policy, Vol. 30, No. 4, April, 2001, pp. 625-641

Ballesteros, Juan Acosta and Rico, Aurelia Modrego, "Promotion of Co-operative Research: a Spanish Experience", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 27, No. 5, October, 2000, pp. 337-346

Balmer, Brian, Davidson, Rosemary and Morris, Norma, "Funding Research through Directed Programmes: AIDS and the Human Genome Project in the U.K.", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 25, No. 3, June, 1998, pp. 185-194

Balmer, Brian and Sharp, M., "The Battle for Biotechnology: Scientific and Technological Paradigms and the Management of Biotechnology in Britain in the 1980s", Research Policy, Vol. 22, Nos. 5/6, November, 1993, pp. 463-478

Balthasar, Andreas, Bättig, Christoph, Thierstein, Alain and Wilhelm, Beate, ""Developers": Key Actors of the Innovation Process. Types of Developers and their Contacts to Institutions Involved in Research and Development, Continuing Education and Training, and the Transfer of Technology", Technovation, Vol. 20, No. 10, October, 2000, pp. 523-538

Baochen, Wang, "Chinese Government Support for Science and Technology", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 18, No. 4, August, 1991, pp. 225-233

Bar, Francois and Borrus, Michael, "Information Networks and Competitive Advantage: Issues for Government Policy and Corporate Strategy", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 7, Nos. 6-8, 1992, pp. 398-408

Bar, Francois, Borrus, Michael, Cohen, Stephan and Zysman, John, "The Evolution and Growth Potential of Electronics-based Technologies", STI Review, No. 5, April, 1989, pp. 7-58

Barker, Brendan, "Japanese Science and Technology Policy Resources on the World Wide Web", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 22, No. 5, October, 1995, pp. 333-343

Barnes, Andrew P., "Towards a Framework for Justifying Public Agricultural R&D: the Example of UK Agricultural Research Policy", Research Policy, Vol. 30, No. 4, April, 2001, pp. 663-672

Bar-On, Hanan, "Receptivity to Scientific and Technological Advice", Technology In Society, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1992, pp. 49-53

Baron, Jonathan, "The Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program: Converting Research into Economic Strength", E.D. Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, Fall, 1993, pp. 63-66

Baron, Jonathan, "Linking Companies with Outside Technology: An Effective New Approach", Technovation, Vol. 12, No. 5, July, 1992, pp. 323-332

Baron, J., "The Pilot Technology Access Program: A Federal Experiment in Technology Transfer", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 15, No. 4, Fall, 1990, pp. 25-30

Barre, Remi, "Science and Technology Policy in France - From Planning to Strategy", Futures, Vol. 18, No. 2, April, 1986, pp. 298-308

Barry, Andrew, "Technical and Political Change in Basic Research: The Case of the European X-ray Observatory Satellite", Research Policy, Vol. 20, No. 3, June, 1991, pp. 261-273

Barry, Andrew, "Community and Diversity in European Technology", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 17, No. 6, December, 1990, pp. 338-342

Barth, James, Cordes, Joseph and Tassey, Gregory, "The Impact of Recent Changes in Tax Policy on Innovation and R&D", in Strategic Management of Industrial R&D, B. Bozeman, M. Crow and A. Link, eds., Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath Books, 1984, pp. 23-49

Baruch, J.J., "The Role of Industrial R&D in New Government Programs", Research Management, Vol. 21, No. 5, September, 1978, pp. 12-16

Baskaran, A., "Duality in National Innovation Systems: the Case of India", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 27, No. 5, October, 2000, pp. 367-374

Bayma Jr., B.A., "Technology Transfer: A Public Policy Issue", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 3, No. 2, Spring, 1979, pp. 43-51

Becerra-Fernandez, Irma, Taylor, Ann, Buckingham, Gregg, Kinney, Frank, Brown, Doris and Entessari, Abbass, "The NASA/Florida Minority Institution Entrepreneurial Partnership: An Infrastructure to Enable Technology Transfer to Small Business", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 25, No. 2, June, 2000, pp. 193-203

Becerril, O.M., "Mexico's New Law Liberalizes Technology Transfer", les Nouvelles, Vol. 27, No. 1, March, 1992, pp. 1-5

Beckler, D.Z., "A Decision Maker's Guide to Science Advising", Technology In Society, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1992, pp. 15-28

Beggs, Steven D., "Determining an Efficient Structure for the US R&D Enterprise: the Onion Model", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 24, No. 2, April, 1997, pp. 101-112

Beise, Marian and Stahl, Harald, "Public Research and Industrial Innovations in Germany", Research Policy, Vol. 28, No. 4, April, 1999, pp. 397-422

Bell, Gerard and Callon, Michel, "Techno-economic Networks and Science and Technology Policy", STI Review, No. 14, 1994, pp. 59-117

Bengston, D.N., "Exogenous Factors Affecting Research Institutions in Developing Countries", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1989, pp. 317-331

Benner, Mats and Sandström, Ulf, "Inertia and Change in Scandinavian Public-sector Research Systems: the Case of Biotechnology", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 27, No. 6, December, 2000, pp.

Benson, Sumner, "How National Security Considerations Affect Technology Transfer", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 13, No. 1, Fall, 1988, pp. 34-41

Berger, R.E., Little, C.J. and Saavedra, P.J., "Commercialization Activities in the SBIR Program (Part 1)", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 17, No. 4, Fall, 1992, pp. 27-39; "Changes Over Time (Part 2)", pp. 40-44

Berman, E.M., "The Politics of Federal Technology Policy: 1980- 1988", Policy Studies Review, Vol. 10, No. 4, Winter, 1991/1992, pp. 28-41

Bernstein, J.I., "Research and Development, Tax Incentives and the Structure of Production and Financing", Toronto, ONT: University of Toronto Press, 1987

Berridge, Virginia and Thom, Betsy, "Research and Policy: What Determines the Relationship?", Policy Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, March, 1996, pp. 23-34

Berry, M.J., "High Temperature Superconductivity Research in the U.S.S.R.", Research Policy, Vol. 21, No. 6, December, 1992, pp. 513-532

Besnosik, Roberto I., de Santana, Edvaldo A., de Oliveira, Adilson and Ribeiro, Maria T.F., "Management of Technology in the Brazilian Power Sector", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 22, No. 1, February, 1995, pp. 2-8

Bessant, John, "The Rise and Fall of 'Supernet': a Case Study of Technology Transfer Policy for Smaller Firms", Research Policy, Vol. 28, No. 6, August, 1999, pp. 601-614

Bessant, John and Rush, Howard, "Building Bridges for Innovation: The Role of Consultants in Technology Transfer", Research Policy, Vol. 24, No. 1, January, 1995, pp. 97-114

Bessant, John and Rush, Howard, "Government Support of Manufacturing Innovations: Two Country-level Case Studies", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 40, No. 1, February, 1993, pp. 79-91

Bhalla, A.S., "Computerisation in Chinese Industry", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 17, No. 4, August, 1990, pp. 243-255

Bianchi, Giuliano, "Galileo Used to Live Here. Tuscany Hi Tech: the Network and its Poles", R&D Management, Vol. 26, No. 3, July, 1996, pp. 199-211

Bianchi, Patrizio, "Technology and Human Resources in Europe After Maastricht", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 9, Nos. 3/4, 1994, pp. 314-331

Bianchi, Patrizio and Bellini, Nicola, "Public Policies for Local Networks of Innovators", Research Policy, Vol. 20, No. 5, October, 1991, pp. 487-497

Bianco, Lucio and D'Anselmi, Paolo, "Strengthening the Management of Public Research Policy in Italy", Research Policy, Vol. 15, No. 3, June, 1986, pp. 149-156

Biekert, Ernst, "The State: A Partner in Innovation", ChemTech, Vol. 9, No. 8, August, 1979, pp. 461-462

Bimber, B., "The Politics of Expertise in Congress: The Rise and Fall of the Office of Technology Assessment", New York: State University of New York Press, 1996

Bingaman, Jeff and Inman, B.R., "Broadening Horizons for Defense R&D", Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 1, Fall, 1992, pp. 80-85

Bisogno, Paolo and Sirilli, Giorgio, "The Use of R&D Evaluation in Policy-Making in Italy", STI Review, No. 5, April, 1989, pp. 195-212

Biswas, Radha R., "Making a Technopolis in Hyderabad, India: The Role of Government IT Policy", Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 71, No. 8 (Special Issue), October, 2004, pp. 823-835

Blakely, E.J., "Innovation as National Industrial Policy", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 2, Nos. 5/6, 1987, pp. 731-742

Blakely, E.J. and Willoughby, K.W., "Transfer or Generation? Biotechnology and Local-Industry Development", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 15, No. 4, Fall, 1990, pp. 31-38

Blakely, E.J., Roberts, B.H. and Manidis, P., "Inducing High Tech: Principles of Designing Support Systems for the Formation and Attraction of Advanced Technology Firms", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 2, Nos. 3/4, 1987, pp. 337-356

Blasco, P.G., "Socio-economic Indicators on Research and Development in Spain", Scientometrics, Vol. 24, No. 1, May, 1992, pp. 79-93

Blau, John, "Europe Seeks Greater Creativity in Basic Research", Research-Technology Management, Vol. 48, No. 3, May-June, 2005, pp. 2-3

Bloch, Erich, "Basic Research: The Key to Economic Competitiveness", International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1988, pp. 393-404

Bloch, Erich, "People and Responsibilities: Science Policy in the 1990s", Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, Vol. 20, No. 2, Fall, 1988, pp. 5-12

Bloch, Erich, "Managing for Challenging Times: A National Research Strategy", Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, Winter, 1986, pp. 20-29

Blume-Kohout, Margaret, Kumar, Krishna B., Lau, Christopher and Sood, Neeraj, "The Effect of Federal Research Funding on Formation of University-firm Biopharmaceutical Alliances", Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 859-876

Blume, S.S., "The Development of Dutch Science Policy in International Perspective, 1965-1985", Den Haag, RAWB-achtergrondstudie nr. 14, 1986

Blume, S.S., "Science Policy Research - The State of the Art and Implications for Policy", Stockholm, Sweden: The Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination, December, 1981

Blumenthal, Marjory, "Federal Government Initiatives and the Foundations of the Information Technology Revolution: Lessons from History", The American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 2, May, 1998, pp. 34-39

Boehmer-Christiansen, Sonja, "Reflections on Scientific Advice and EC Transboundary Pollution Policy", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 22, No. 3, June, 1995, pp. 195-203

Boesman, William C., coordinator, "Some Perspectives on the Changing Role of the U.S. Government in Science and Technology", Report for Congress, Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1998

Boettiger, Sara and Bennett, Alan B., "Bayh-Dole: If We Knew Then What We Know Now", Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 24, No. 3, March, 2006, pp. 320-323

Boggio, G. and Thomas, R., "Cooperation with Eastern European Countries in Science and Research: A New Initiative of the European Community", Technology In Society, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1993, pp. 149-154

Bollinger, Lynn, Hope, Katherine and Utterback, J.M., "A Review of Literature and Hypotheses on New Technology-Based Firms", Research Policy, Vol. 12, No. 1, February, 1983, pp. 1-14

Bondi, Hermann, "Bridging the Gulf", Technology In Society, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1992, pp. 9-14

Bondi, Hermann, "Policies of R and D", Science and Public Policy, Vol. 11, No. 4, August, 1984, pp. 184-187

Bongaerts, J.C. and Heinrichs, Dirk, "Government Support of Clean Technology Research in West Germany: Some Evidence", R&D Management, Vol. 17, No. 1, January, 1987, pp. 39-50

Borrás, Susana, "The Innovation Policy of the European Union: From Government to Governance", Edward Elgar, 2003

Boucher, Rick, "Getting Serious About Science - Policy Reform", Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 10, No. 2, Winter, 1993-94, pp. 25-28

Boucke, Christian, Cantner, Uwe and Hanusch, Horst, "`Technopolises' as a Policy Goal: a Morphological Study of the Wissenschaftsstadt Ulm", Technovation, Vol. 14, No. 6, August, 1994, pp. 407-418

Boulton, W.R., Dowling, M.J. and Lohmeyer, Jurgen, "Technology Development Strategies in Japan, Europe and the United States", Technovation, Vol. 12, No. 2, March, 1992, pp. 99-118

Bowers, L.J., Elliott, R.W. and Caldwell, L.E., "Competitive Research Grants in Texas: The Advanced Research Program and Advanced Technology Program", SRA Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3, Winter, 1990, pp. 19-25

Bowler, J.E., "Government Role in U.K. Technology", les Nouvelles, Vol. 14, No. 2, June, 1979, pp. 75-80

Bowonder, B. and Richardson, P.K., "Liberalization and the Growth of Business-led R&D: the Case of India", R&D Management, Vol. 30, No. 4, October, 2000, pp. 279-288

Bozeman, Barry, "Technology Transfer and Public Policy: A Review of Research and Theory", Research Policy, Vol. 29, Nos. 4/5, April, 2000, pp. 627-655

Bozeman, B., "Straight Arrow Science Policy and Its Dangers", Public Administration Review, Vol. 39, No. 2, March/April, 1979, pp. 116-121

Bozeman, B. and Crow, M., "The Environments of U.S. R&D Laboratories: Political and Market Influences", Policy Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, February, 1990, pp. 25-56

Bozeman, Barry and Crow, Michael, "U.S. R&D Laboratories and Their Environments: Public and Market Influence", Final Report, Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, March, 1988

Bozeman, Barry and Link, Albert, "Public Support for Private R&D: The Case of the Research Tax Credit", Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1985, pp. 370-382

Bozeman, Barry and Link, A.N., "Tax Incentives for R&D: A Critical Evaluation", Research Policy, Vol. 13, No. 1, February, 1984, pp. 21-31

Bozeman, Barry and Link, A.N., "Investments in Technology: Corporate Strategies and Public Policy Alternatives", New York: Praeger, 1983

Bradbury, F.R., Bodroghy, B.G., Clarke, F.J.P. and Jervis, P., "European Economic Community Industrial Research Priorities for the Early 1980s", R&D Management, Vol. 11, No. 4, October, 1981, pp. 157-164

Bradley, V.G., "National Strategies for Technology Trade: A Response to Chris Hill", Technology In Society, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1989, pp. 181-189

Brahm, Richard, "National Targeting Policies, High-Technology Industries, and Excessive Competition", Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 16, Special Issue, Summer, 1995, pp. 71-91

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